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BACKGROUND There are limited treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis. Ibudilast inhibits several cyclic nucleotide… Expand Current directions in medication development for alcohol use disorder (AUD) emphasize the need to identify novel molecular… Expand Neuroinflammatory signaling pathways in the central nervous system are of current interest as potential pharmacotherapy targets… Expand Background: Ibudilast is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor influencing inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS… Expand AV411 (ibudilast; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine) is an antiinflammatory drug that was initially developed for… Expand Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we… Expand Ibudilast is a relatively nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which has been marketed for almost 20 years in Japan for… Expand The treatment of neuropathic pain is a major unresolved medical challenge. Present pharmacotherapies only have modest efficacy… Expand The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ibudilast, has many effects on lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and glial cells. We examined the… Expand Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is considered to play a critical role in the development of various pathological processes… Expand