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Astrocyte apoptosis: implications for neuroprotection
It is found that incubation of cultured rat astrocytes in a Ca(2+)-containing medium after exposure to a Ca-2+-free medium causes an increase in intracellular Ca( 2+) concentration followed by apoptosis, and that NF-kappa B, reactive oxygen species, and enzymes such as calpain, xanthine oxidase, calcineurin and caspase-3 are involved in reperfusion-induced apoptosis. Expand
SEA0400, a novel and selective inhibitor of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, attenuates reperfusion injury in the in vitro and in vivo cerebral ischemic models.
Results indicate that SEA0400 is the most potent and selective inhibitor of NCX, and suggest that the compound may exert protective effects on postischemic brain damage. Expand
Distribution of the mRNA for a pituitary adenylate cyclase‐activating polypeptide receptor in the rat brain: An in situ hybridization study
Moderate‐to‐weak expression was further observed in many other regions of the brain and in the cerebellar cortex, and presumed Bergmann glia cells showed moderate expression. Expand
Altered psychomotor behaviors in mice lacking pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)
Evidence is provided that PACAP plays a previously uncharacterized role in the regulation of psychomotor behaviors, as well as the generation of mice lacking the PACAP gene (PACAP−/−), which displayed remarkable behavioral changes. Expand
Astrocytes Modulate Neural Network Activity by Ca2+-Dependent Uptake of Extracellular K+
It is shown here that astrocytic Ca2+ signaling ex vivo and in vivo stimulated the Na+,K+-ATPase (Na+- and K+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase) leading to a transient decrease in the extracellular potassium ion (K+) concentration, which led to neuronal hyperpolarization and suppressed baseline excitatory synaptic activity. Expand
Apelin is a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells.
There has been much focus recently on the possible functions of apelin, an endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, in cardiovascular and central nervous systems. We report aExpand
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) decreases ischemic neuronal cell death in association with IL-6.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents neuronal cell death after ischemia via a signaling mechanism involving IL-6, and phosphorylated STAT, pSTAT3 and pERK were observed in the PACAP(+/-) mice, whereas a reduction in p STAT3 was recorded in the IL- 6 null mice. Expand
KB-R7943 inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry in cultured neurons and astrocytes.
Results indicate that cultured neurons and astrocytes possess SOCE and that KB-R7943 inhibits not only NCX but also SOCE. Expand
Inhibition of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger suppresses torsades de pointes in an intact heart model of long QT syndrome-2 and long QT syndrome-3.
In an intact rabbit heart model of LQT2 and LqT3 as well as in a computer model of the rabbit cardiac myocyte, inhibition of NCX is effective in preventing TdP due to a suppression of EADs, a reversion of action potential prolongation, and a reduction of dispersion of repolarization. Expand
Postsynaptic 5‐hydroxytryptamine1A receptor activation increases in vivo dopamine release in rat prefrontal cortex
5‐Hydroxytryptamine (5‐HT) plays a role in the regulation of 3,4‐dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) neurons in the brain, but the precise mechanism of regulation by 5‐HT1A receptors of dopamineExpand