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Primary care clinicians find managing chronic pain challenging. Evidence of long-term efficacy of opioids for chronic… Expand This guideline provides recommendations for primary care clinicians who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of… Expand The U.S. opioid epidemic is continuing, and drug overdose deaths nearly tripled during 1999-2014. Among 47,055 drug overdose… Expand BACKGROUND
Long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain is becoming increasingly common in community practice. Concomitant… Expand UNLABELLED
Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and… Expand Medications which bind to opioid receptors are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of multiple and diverse chronic… Expand Increased activity of dopamine-containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area is necessary for the reinforcing effects of… Expand The concept of multiple opioid receptors reconciles a large body of clinical and pharmacological data. Recent studies have shown… Expand Opioid peptides were assayed by inhibition of 3H-naloxone and 3H-leu-enkephalin binding in brain homogenates and by depression of… Expand Enkephalin, a natural ligand for opiate receptors is composed of the pentapeptides H–Tyr–Gly–Gly–Phe–Met–OH and H–Tyr–Gly–Gly–Phe… Expand