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We applied a fusion of CRISPR-Cas9 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Target-AID) for point mutagenesis at genomic… Expand Chromosomal rearrangements, including translocations, require formation and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). These… Expand To elucidate the specific role of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in mucosal immunity, we generated mice carrying a knock-in point… Expand The cytidine deaminase AID hypermutates immunoglobulin genes but can also target oncogenes, leading to tumorigenesis. The extent… Expand Jawless vertebrates use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) comprised of leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) segments as counterparts of… Expand Antibody class switching occurs in mature B cells in response to antigen stimulation and costimulatory signals. It occurs by a… Expand The transcription factors Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4 modulate cell fate 'decisions' in diverse systems. Here we show that Foxo1… Expand IL-21 is a type I cytokine that influences the function of T cells, NK cells, and B cells. In this study, we report that IL-21… Expand A feature of Ig hypermutation is the presence of hypermutable DNA sequences that are preferentially found in the V regions of Ig… Expand Genome-wide sequence analysis in the invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis, has provided a comprehensive picture of immune… Expand