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For a better evaluation of the accuracy of VIs in estimating biophysical parameters, a "true" VI value attributed only to the vegetation signal andfree of any contamination is needed. In this article, pure vegetation spectra were extractedfrom a set of open and closed canopies by unmixing the green vegetation signalfrom the background component. Canopy(More)
Autonomous video surveillance and monitoring of human subjects in video has a rich history. Many deployed systems are able to reliably track human motion in indoor and controlled outdoor environments, e.g. parking lots and university campuses. A challenging domain of vital military importance is the surveillance of non-cooperative and camouflaged targets(More)
Liver natural killer (NK) cells were recently reported to possess memory-like properties in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models. However, the phenotype and origin of these "memory" NK cells cannot be distinguished from other NK cell subpopulations. Here, we define the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional features of liver NK cell subsets and their(More)
In extremely acidic environments, enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli rely on the amino acid antiporter AdiC to expel protons by exchanging intracellular agmatine (Agm(2+)) for extracellular arginine (Arg(+)). AdiC is a representative member of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily of membrane transporters. The structure of(More)
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) regulates a wide spectrum of human physiology through the 5-HT receptor family. We report the crystal structures of the human 5-HT1B G protein-coupled receptor bound to the agonist antimigraine medications ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. The structures reveal similar binding modes for these ligands, which occupy the(More)
Because of their compact genomes, retroelements (including retrotransposons and retroviruses) employ a variety of translational recoding mechanisms to express Gag and Pol. To assess the diversity of recoding strategies, we surveyed gag/pol gene organization among retroelements from diverse host species, including elements exhaustively recovered from the(More)
The enrichment of mobile genetic elements in heterochromatin may be due, in part, to targeted integration. The chromoviruses are Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons with chromodomains at their integrase C termini. Chromodomains are logical determinants for targeting to heterochromatin, because the chromodomain of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) typically recognizes(More)
Gene therapy is becoming a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of genetic and acquired disorders. Nonviral approaches as alternative gene transfer vehicles to the popular viral vectors have received significant attention because of their favorable properties, including lack of immunogenicity, low toxicity, and potential for tissue specificity.(More)
Virulent enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 rely on acid-resistance (AR) systems to survive the acidic environment in the stomach. A major component of AR is an arginine-dependent arginine:agmatine antiporter that expels intracellular protons. Here, we report the crystal structure of AdiC, the arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli(More)