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The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as components that recognize conserved structures in pathogens has greatly advanced… Expand Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded… Expand Many plant-associated microbes are pathogens that impair plant growth and reproduction. Plants respond to infection using a two… Expand TLR4 is the receptor for LPS and plays a critical role in innate immunity. Stimulation of TLR4 activates proinflammatory pathways… Expand The innate immune system is an evolutionally conserved host defense mechanism against pathogens. Innate immune responses are… Expand Functional characterization of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has established that innate immunity is a skillful system that detects… Expand Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine that induces the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), favours… Expand Toll-like receptors have a crucial role in the detection of microbial infection in mammals and insects. In mammals, these… Expand The innate immune system recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, but… Expand The concept of innate immunity refers to the first-line host defense that serves to limit infection in the early hours after… Expand