Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were originally characterized in terms of their harmful effects on cells and invading… Expand BACKGROUND
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, a T-cell coinhibitory receptor, and one of its ligands, PD-L1, play a pivotal role… Expand Immunological dysregulation is the cause of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. The… Expand Infections by attaching and effacing (A/E) bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, pose a serious threat to public… Expand Many plant-associated microbes are pathogens that impair plant growth and reproduction. Plants respond to infection using a two… Expand One potential outcome of the adaptive coevolution of humans and bacteria is the development of commensal relationships, where… Expand The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes catalyze a key step in the conversion of arachidonate to PGH2, the immediate substrate for a… Expand Nutritional deprivation suppresses immune function. The cloning of the obese gene and identification of its protein product… Expand NF-kappa B, a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of p50 and p65 subunits, can be activated in many cell types and is… Expand The pressing need for a better experimental system for AIDS research has brought into sharp focus the shortcomings of available… Expand