physical dependence

Known as: biological Alcohol or Other Drugs dependence, physiological addiction, biological AOD dependence 
The neuroadaptation of the body to the presence of an opioid, and is characterized by the onset of acute symptoms and signs of withdrawal if the… (More)
National Institutes of Health

Papers overview

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Review
2005
Review
2005
Morphine and other opioids are used and abused for their analgesic and rewarding properties. Tolerance to these effects develops… (More)
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Review
2005
Review
2005
Although benzodiazepines are invaluable in the treatment of anxiety disorders, they have some potential for abuse and may cause… (More)
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Highly Cited
2004
Highly Cited
2004
The dependence construct fills an important explanatory role in motivational accounts of smoking and relapse. Frequently used… (More)
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Highly Cited
2002
Highly Cited
2002
Traditional models of physical dependence suggest that nicotine dependence should be reflected by the extent of drug exposure (e… (More)
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Highly Cited
2000
Highly Cited
2000
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, particularly negative emotional states, can persist for months following the removal of alcohol… (More)
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Highly Cited
1999
Highly Cited
1999
The function of the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) was investigated by invalidating its gene. Mutant mice did not respond to… (More)
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Highly Cited
1996
Highly Cited
1996
DESPITE tremendous efforts in the search for safe, efficacious and non-addictive opioids for pain treatment, morphine remains the… (More)
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Highly Cited
1984
Highly Cited
1984
Rats never before exposed to opioids rapidly learned to press a lever for microinjections of morphine into the ventral tegmental… (More)
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Highly Cited
1973
Highly Cited
1973
In rats implanted subcutaneously with morphine containing pellets different degrees of dependence were induced by varying the… (More)
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