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Zekr

Zekr (Persian:ذکر) is an open source Quranic desktop application. It is an open platform Quran study tool for browsing and researching on the Quran… Expand
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2015
2015
ه !" رد ، ی ه رد !ی" ٤$ هر& ' و " !ی ) هر& ء +' !, ر + ق و در& لو0' !, د 1 م&34 ن&6… Expand
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2011
2011
................................................................................................................................... 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................... 7 NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION ............................................................................................... 9 GLOSSARY OF THE MOST COMMONLY-USED PERSIAN TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 10 INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................................... 12 --The presidential innovation ................................................................................................ 14 INSTITUTIONS AND ELITES – AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK ................................................... 16 --Defining the “Political Environment” ................................................................................ 20 AIMS AND METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................ 23 --Outline and Positioning within the Existing Academic Literature ..................................... 24 CHAPTER 1 DIMENSIONS OF THE STATE IN THE QAJAR AND PAHLAVI ERAS 27 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 27 PART ONE – THE QAJAR ERA ..................................................................................................... 27 --The early Qajar era ............................................................................................................ 27 --The Constitutional Revolution ............................................................................................ 29 --The Constitution of 1906 ..................................................................................................... 30 PART TWO – THE PAHLAVI ERA ................................................................................................ 31 --Reza Khan’s Autocratic Modernisation .............................................................................. 31 --The Second Pahlavi Era ...................................................................................................... 32 --Patterns of Intra-Elite Organisation ................................................................................... 34 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 36 CHAPTER 2 THE EMERGENCE OF THE POLITICAL CLASS OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC ................................................................................................................................... 37 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 37 PART ONE – THE EARLY STAGES OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC’S POLITICAL CLASS .................. 37 -From Pre-Revolutionary Rebels to Post-Revolutionary Holders Of State Power. ............ 37 PART TWO – THE MODUS OPERANDI OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC’S POLITICAL CLASS ............ 40 --The Internal Forms of Organisation during Khomeini's Time ........................................... 40 --The Khomeini Style of Governance ..................................................................................... 43 --A Mixed Political Class ...................................................................................................... 45 --The Emergence of Different Visions of the State. ............................................................... 46 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 47 CHAPTER 3 – THE GENESIS AND EVOLUTION OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH, 1979-1989 ....................................................................................................................................... 49 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 49 PART ONE – THE CREATION OF THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF STATE 49 --The First Draft Text ............................................................................................................ 50 --Khomeini’s Remarks on the First Draft Text ...................................................................... 51 --Montazeri’s Rejoinder to the June Text .............................................................................. 53 --The Final Definition of the Executive Branch .................................................................... 53 PART TWO – THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH IN THE EIGHTIES .......................................................... 57 --The First Presidential Elections of the Islamic Republic ................................................... 57 --The Institutional Struggles of Bani-Sadr’s Presidency ....................................................... 58 --The Downfall of Bani-Sadr ................................................................................................. 62 --The Rise to the Presidency of Ali Khamene'i ...................................................................... 64 --The Contentious Process for the Selection of Prime Minister Mousavi ............................. 66 --The Presidential Elections of 1985 ..................................................................................... 67 PART THREE – THE PRESIDENCY REDEFINED ............................................................................ 70 5 --The 1986 Parliamentary Bill on the Powers and Duties of the Presidency ....................... 70 --The Revision of the Constitution in 1989 ............................................................................ 71 CHAPTER 4 – THE PRESIDENCY OF HASHEMI RAFSANJANI AND THE QUEST FOR SĀZANDEGI ....................................................................................................................... 77 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 77 PART ONE – RAFSANJANI'S FIRST MANDATE (1989-1993) ....................................................... 78 -Rafsanjani's Rise to the Presidency ................................................................................... 78 --The Formation of Rafsanjani's First Cabinet ..................................................................... 84 --The Imperative and Perils of Economic Reform: The First Development Plan of the Islamic Republic .................................................................................................................... 87 --Rafsanjani's Electoral Politics: The Battle for the Fourth Majles ..................................... 92 --The Fourth Majles’ Tenous Relationship with the Government ....................................... 104 --The Presidential Elections of 1993 ................................................................................... 110 PART TWO – RAFSANJANI’S CONTENTIOUS SECOND TERM .................................................... 118 --The Widening of the Economic Confrontation .................................................................. 118 --The Last Stand of the President's Men : The Creation Of Kārgozārān-e Sāzandegi ....... 125 CONCLUSION "POWER" AND "OPPORTUNITY" IN RAFSANJANI'S IRAN ................................. 131 CHAPTER 5 – THE PRESIDENCY OF MOHAMMAD KHATAMI AND THE CRUCIBLE OF ESLĀH ............................................................................................................ 135 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 135 PART ONE KHATAMI'S ASCENT TO POWER ........................................................................... 136 --The Resurgence of the Chap ............................................................................................. 136 --The Early Electoral Skirmishes ........................................................................................ 138 --Seyyed Mohammad Khatami: The Convergence Candidate ............................................ 140 --The Khatami Discourse: Rule of Law, Civil Society and Political Participation ............ 146 PART TWO – THE HEYDAY OF ESLĀHĀT (1997-2001) ............................................................ 149 --The "Reformists": Khatami's Elite and the Creation of the First Cabinet ....................... 149 --The Challenges of Crisis: The Chain Murders and the Student Uprising of 18 Tir 1378 / 9 July 1999 .............................................................................................................................. 154 --Khatami and Elections: The Government's Role in the Reformist Electoral Victories of 1999 and 2000 ..................................................................................................................... 164 --The International Relations Of Khatami: Bringing Iran Back into the Community of Nations ................................................................................................................................. 171 --The Somber End of Khatami's First Mandate ................................................................... 176 --The Elections of 2001: Khatami’s Referendum ................................................................ 180 PART THREE – THE INSTITUTIONAL CONFRONTATIONS OF KHATAMI’S SECOND TERM ........ 183 --The Insurmountable Institutional Barriers to Reform ...................................................... 183 --Khatami’s Last Stand: The Twin Bills .............................................................................. 185 --The Seventh Majles Elections: The Swanso 
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2010
2010
 
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2005
2005
هدیکچ راـظتنا رد هـک یناراـمیب لوـمعم روـط هـب .تـسا ناراــ میب یارب ازسرتسا یهبرجت کی یحارج لمع :همدقم رد و نوخراــ شف نتفر لااب و بلق نابرض شیازفا ثعاب دناوتیم بارطضا .دنوشیم بارطضا راچد دنتسه یحارج موزـل ،یـحارج لـمع دیدناـک ناراـمیب رد بارـطضا تــیمها .ددرگ یحارج لمع زا دعب ضراوع و یزیرنوخ هجیتن .دهدیم رارق دیکأت دروم ار بارطضا هدنهدشهاک یاههویش هب هجوت و عوقو زا یریگشیپ یکـشزپ موـلع هاگــ شناد هب هتسباو یاهناتسرامیب زا یکی رد یبرجت همین شهوژپ نیا :راک شور و داوم هــک دندوب مکش یحارج لامعا دیدناک نارامیب زا رفن 70 شهوژپ دروم یاهدحاو دادعت .تسا هتفرگ ماجنا نارهت یروآدرـگ رازـبا .دـنتفرگ رارـق نوـسنب یزاـسمارآ هورــگ رد رفن 35 و رکذ هورگ رد رفن 35 یفداصت روط هب مـیلاع تــبث هدهاشم هگرب و رگربلیپشا راکشآ بارطضا همانشسرپ ،یدرف تاعلاطا همانشسرپ لماش تاعلاطا هورـگ رد لـمع زا لـبق زور .دوـب ضـبن دادـعت و یکیلوتـساید ،یکیلوتـسیس نوخراـشف نازیـم لماــش یتایح هدزناـپ تدـم هـب ناراــمیب و دش هداد شزومآ شهوژپ دروم یاهدحاو هب نوسنب یزاسمارآ شور ،یزاسمارآ هوـقلا و لوـحلا رـکذ راـب دـص رارـکت ،رـکذ هورگ رد .دندرکیم ارجا ار شور نیا تعاس ود هلصاف هب و هقیقد میلاع نینچمه .دشیم رارکت نارامیب طسوت لمع زا لبق زور هک دش هداد شزومآ دمح هروس راب تفه و ... اابلاا یتاـیح مـیلاع و ناراـمیب بارـطضا حطـس ًاددـجم لــ مع زور .دشیم تبث و یریگهزادنا هورگ ود ره رد یتایح .دندش هسیاقم مهاب هورگ ود و یریگهزادنا ره (p<0/006) رکذ رارکت و (p<0/02) نوسنب شور هب یزاسمارآ هک داد ناشن شهوژپ یاههتفای :اههتفای هتــ شادن دوجو بارطضا شهاک رد یرادانعم فلاتخا هورگ ود نیب و ،دندش نارامیب رد بارطضا شهاک بجوم ود هدرـک ادیپ شهاک یرادانعم روط هب هورگ ود ره رد ضبن دادعت و یکیلوتساید نوخراشف نینچمه .(p>0/05) تسا هدـش لـیدعت یرتشیب نازیم هب یزاسمارآ هورگ هب تبسن رکذ هورگ رد یکیلوتسیس نوخراشف اما .(p<0/05) دوب .(p>0/05) دوب زا ناوتیم و دنرثؤم بارطضا نازیم شهاک رب یبحتسم راکذا رارکت و یزاسمارآ شور ود ره :یریگهجیتن .درک هدافتسا مکش یحارج لمع عون ره زا لبق زور بارطضا شهاک تهج شور ود ره 
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1989
1989
Presentation de l'histoire et de l'organisation de la communaute, et des doctrines presidant aux pratiques rituelles, distinctes… Expand
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1989
1989
I. Le rite guati, transe et guerison (description des phases du rituel, du fonds de croyances animistes, de la relation avec le z… Expand
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1986
1986
The first chapter presents the principles of the sama', mystical audition of the sufis, leading to ecstasy, through the classical… Expand
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