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In this paper, we present bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks, and a modified, full gradient version of the LSTM… Expand In speaking and comprehending language, word information is retrieved from memory and combined into larger units (unification… Expand In this paper, we apply bidirectional training to a long short term memory (LSTM) network for the first time. We also present a… Expand The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 90 British children beginning at school entry when they were 4… Expand We present the results of a short-term longitudinal study. Children in the early stages of learning to read (5 and 6 year olds… Expand Studies using behavioral methods, such as head-turning experiments, in which children are conditioned to turn their heads toward… Expand There is considerable debate about whether the early processing of sounds depends on whether they form part of speech. Proponents… Expand Percent recognition of phonemes and whole syllables, measured in both consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words and CVC nonsense… Expand Abstract We describe a model called the TRACE model of speech perception. The model is based on the principles of interactive… Expand In listening to speech, one typically reduces the number and variety of the many sounds with which he is bombarded by casting… Expand