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Euryops transvaalensis

Known as: Euryops transvaalensis Klatt 
 
National Institutes of Health

Papers overview

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2015
2015
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Taxonomic history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Morphology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chromosome cytology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Floral biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Ethnobotany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Phylogeny and subgeneric classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Key to genera of tribe Watsonieae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Systematics of Lapeirousia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Key to sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Key to species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A. Sect. Chasmatocallis (Spp. 1–8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 B. Sect. Sophronia (Spp. 9–13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 C. Sect. Lapeirousia (Spp. 14–27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Systematics of Codonorhiza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Key to species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Spp. 1–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Systematics of Schizorhiza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Systematics of Psilosiphon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Key to species in southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Spp. 1–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 New combinations for Psilosiphon species not represented in southern Africa. . . . . . . . . . 137 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 iv S T R E L I T Z I A 35 (2015) Plastid and nuclear DNA sequence analyses show that the sub-Saharan African genus Lapeirousia Pourr. is paraphyletic as presently circumscribed. Species of Lapeirousia are retrieved as a clade in which are nested the tropical African genera Cyanixia Goldblatt & J.C.Manning and Savannosiphon Goldblatt & Marais as sister to Lapeirousia sect. Paniculatae Goldblatt plus the taxonomically isolated L. neglecta Goldblatt. To preserve taxonomic monophyly we dismember Lapeirousia, recognising the new genera Codonorhiza Goldblatt & J.C.Manning for L. sect. Fastigiatae Goldblatt (7 spp.) and Schizorhiza Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (1 sp.) for L. neglecta, both from the Cape Floristic Region, as well as Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (15 spp.) for L. sect. Paniculatae, all from tropical and eastern southern Africa. This leaves La­ peirousia (27 species) centred in western southern Africa, but also represented in south tropical Africa. All four genera have derived corms with a flat base, each with distinctive and different corm tunics and sometimes corm shapes that are correlated with fundamental differences in leaf morphology and anatomy, floral bracts, and seed shape and surface sculpturing. Codonorhiza and Schizorhiza also have apomorphic, 1-banded pollen apertures. We revise the infrageneric taxonomy of Lapeirousia in light of the molecular phylogeny, recognising sect. Chasmatocallis (R.C.Foster) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, sect. La­ peirousia and sect. Sophronia (Licht. ex Roem. & Schult.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning. We provide dichotomous keys to the four genera in southern Africa and full revisions of all four genera. We recognise the following six new species: C. elandsmontana Goldblatt & J.C.Manning and C. pillansii Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from Western Cape, South Africa; L. purpurea Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from Western Cape; L. kalahariensis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from southern Namibia and Northern Cape; L. kamiesmontana Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, a local endemic of the Kamiesberg of Northern Cape; and P. erongoensis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from central Namibia. We also raise L. dolomitica subsp. lewisiana (B.Nord.) Goldblatt and L. littoralis subsp. cauda­ ta (Schinz) Goldblatt to species rank as L. lewisiana B.Nord. and L. caudata Schinz respectively, and recognise L. angustifolia Schltr., currently included in L. pyramidalis (Lam.) Goldblatt. We describe two new subspecies in the South African L. fabricii (D.Delaroche) Ker Gawl.; subsp. compressa Goldblatt & J.C.Manning and subsp. purpurascens Goldblatt & J.C.Manning; the new subsp. foliosa Goldblatt & J.C.Manning of L. plicata (Jacq.) Diels; and the new P. sandersonii subsp. limpopoensis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning. Abstract S T R E L I T Z I A 35 (2015) v We are grateful to Elizabeth Parker and Lendon Porter for assistance and companionship in the field and to Ingrid Nänni, SANBI, who helped considerably with travel arrangements and with field work. We thank Clare Archer, SANBI, Pretoria, for providing answers to our several questions about holdings at the National Herbarium in Pretoria; Mary Stiffler, Missouri Botanical Garden, who cheerfully helped solve bibliographic questions and provided copies of numerous articles not readily available to us; and Roy Gereau, Missouri Botanical Garden, for advice on nomenclatural questions. Michelle Smith prepared the distribution maps. This study was supported in part by grant 8243-07 from the US National Geographic Society. Collecting permits were provided by the conservation authorities of Northern Cape and Western Cape. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S T R E L I T Z I A 35 (2015) 1 Phylogenetic analysis of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences (Forest et al. 2014) shows that the sub-Saharan African genus Lapeirousia Pourr. (± 45 species) is paraphyletic as presently circumscribed (e.g. Goldblatt 1990a; Goldblatt & Manning 2008). Three tropical African genera of tribe Watsonieae Klatt (subfamily Crocoideae Burnett) (Goldblatt et al. 2006), Cyanixia Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (1 sp.), Savannosiphon Goldblatt & Marais (1 sp.) (and by inference Zygotrito­ nia Mildbr., 6 spp.) nest within the genus, where they are retrieved as sister to the largely tropical and eastern southern African L. sect. Panicula­ tae Goldblatt, excluding L. neglecta Goldblatt. This clade is in turn sister to the largely southern but also south tropical African subg. Lapeirousia, with this combined clade sister to L. neglecta and then with L. sect. Fastigiatae Goldblatt from the Cape Floristic Region (Figure 1). The characters used to unite Lapeirousia in the past were a flat-based, ± bell-shaped corm (unique in Watsonieae but also present in several other genera of Crocoideae), and often a strongly asymmetric karyotype (Goldblatt & Takei 1993). Most species also have deeply divided style branches, a character ancestral in Watsonieae but lacking in Cyanixia, Zygotritonia and the Cape endemic Pil­ lansia L.Bolus as well as in some species of Lapei­ rousia sect. Paniculatae. Options for circumscribing genera in Watsonieae as monophyletic based on the molecular phylogeny are either to unite Cyanixia, Sa­ vannosiphon and Zygotritonia in an expanded and, in practice, morphologically indefinable Lapeirousia, or to treat L. sect. Paniculatae, L. neglecta and sect. Fastigiatae as separate genera. We select the latter option, transferring the tropical and eastern southern African species of sect. Paniculatae to the new genus Psilosiphon (naked or smooth tube) and those of sect. Fastigiatae to a second new genus Codonorhiza (bell-shaped root). We treat the phylogenetically isolated and morphologically intermediate L. neglecta as the new genus Schizorhiza. In this revised generic taxonomy all genera in the Lapeirousia clade are evidently monophyletic and readily distinguished by macroand micro-morphological features, including leaf anatomy, pollen and seed morphology, and chromosome cytology. The inference to be drawn from the phylogenetic analysis is that flat-based, ± bell-shaped corms are ancestral to the greater Lapeirousia clade and were either lost by reversal in Cya­  
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2015
2015
SummaryAttempts to identify a modern collection of Chromolaena (Wood et al. 19515) proved problematic, especially when comparison… Expand
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2014
2014
Abstract Assumptions about the effects of birth order on personality abound in popular culture and self-help books. Indeed, when… Expand
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2013
2013
The chloroform-methanol extract of Euryops arabicus, collected from Saudi provenance, yielded a new kaurane diterpene (1) and… Expand
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2013
2013
Farfugium japonicum (L.) Kitam., known as Japanese silver leaf, is native to Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. It is grown as an… Expand
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Review
2013
Review
2013
Institutionalized Reason is a collection of essays whose aim is to explore the relationship among rights, morality and law using… Expand
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2011
2011
The essential oils of the aerial part of two Asteraceae species, namely Euryops arabicus Steud. and Laggera decurrens (Vahl… Expand
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2008
2008
Stokesia laevis (J. Hill) Greene is a herbaceous perennial native to the southeastern United States. Most cultivars of Stokesia… Expand
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2005
2005
In order to enhance the availability of ornamental species for their introduction in the Italian market, a research of the best… Expand
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1986
1986
 
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