We develop a general approach to robust inference about a scalar parameter of interest when the data is potentially heterogeneous and correlated in a largely unknown way. The key ingredient is the following result of Bakirov and Székely (2005) concerning the small sample properties of the standard t-test: For a significance level of 5% or lower, the t-test remains conservative for underlying observations that are independent and Gaussian with heterogenous variances. One might thus conduct… CONTINUE READING