The properties of the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase in a 20,000g particulate fraction from maturing safflower seeds were investigated. The optimum pH of the reaction was 7.2. The apparent Km for glycerophosphate was 0.54 mM. Only monoacylglycerophosphate was accumulated in the particulate fraction under normal conditions. Position 1 of glycerophosphate was exclusively esterified with either palmitoyl-CoA or linoleoyl-CoA as acyl donor, while 2-acylglycerophosphate was the minor product. The specificity and selectivity of the acyltransferase for acyl-CoA were broad and somewhat affected by temperature. The concentration of glycerophosphate did not affect the selectivity. These observations suggested that the fatty acid composition of position 1 of safflower triacylglycerol must primarily depend on the composition of the acyl-CoA pool in the site of synthesis, and that growth temperature and the acyl-CoA selectivity of the glycerophosphate acyltransferase may be rather minor factors regarding regulation of the fatty acid composition of position 1 in triacylglycerol.