Drug-delivery system responses to stimuli have been well investigated recently. As pH decrease is observed in most solid tumors, drug-delivery systems responsive to the slightly acidic extracellular pH environment of solid tumors have been developed as a general strategy for tumor targeting. Drug vehicles that are sensitive to acidic endosome/lysosome pH have been constructed for efficient drug release in tumor cells. This review explains the mechanisms of acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment and endocytic-related organelles, endosomes and lysosomes. Nanoparticle responses to acidic extracellular pH are discussed, along with approaches for improving tumor-specific therapy. Endosome/lysosome pH-triggered vehicles are reviewed, which achieve rapid drug release in tumor cells and overcome multidrug resistance.