p values, hypothesis tests, and likelihood: implications for epidemiology of a neglected historical debate.

@article{Goodman1993pVH,
  title={p values, hypothesis tests, and likelihood: implications for epidemiology of a neglected historical debate.},
  author={Steven N. Goodman},
  journal={American journal of epidemiology},
  year={1993},
  volume={137 5},
  pages={485-96; discussion 497-501}
}
It is not generally appreciated that the p value, as conceived by R. A. Fisher, is not compatible with the Neyman-Pearson hypothesis test in which it has become embedded. The p value was meant to be a flexible inferential measure, whereas the hypothesis test was a rule for behavior, not inference. The combination of the two methods has led to a reinterpretation of the p value simultaneously as an "observed error rate" and as a measure of evidence. Both of these interpretations are problematic… CONTINUE READING

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