n-6 Fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

  title={n-6 Fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials},
  author={Christopher E. Ramsden and Joseph Hibbeln and Sharon F Majchrzak and John M. Davis},
  journal={British Journal of Nutrition},
  pages={1586 - 1600}
Randomised controlled trials (RCT) of mixed n-6 and n-3 PUFA diets, and meta-analyses of their CHD outcomes, have been considered decisive evidence in specifically advising consumption of 'at least 5-10 % of energy as n-6 PUFA'. [] Key Method Here we (1) performed an extensive literature search and extracted detailed dietary and outcome data enabling a critical examination of all RCT that increased PUFA and reported relevant CHD outcomes; (2) determined if dietary interventions increased n-6 PUFA with…
All PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohorts.
It is established that a clear distinction was not made between n–3 and n–6 PUFAs in pooled analyses of randomized and nonrandomized trials, and the necessity of making aclear distinction between PUFA species for interpreting the results of clinical trials and formulating dietary guidelines is highlighted.
Dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiologic evidence.
  • Dong D. Wang
  • Medicine, Biology
    Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids
  • 2018
The effect of replacing saturated fat with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fat on coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA is unlikely to reduce CHD events, CHD mortality or total mortality, and the suggestion of benefits reported in earlier meta-analyses is due to the inclusion of inadequately controlled trials.
Omega-3 Supplementation and Heart Disease: A Population-Based Diet by Gene Analysis of Clinical Trial Outcomes
The role of a FADS gene-by-dietary PUFA interaction model that takes into consideration dietary exposure, including the intake of LA and ALA, n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in determining the efficacy of n- 3 PUFA supplementation is discussed.
n-6 Fatty acids and risk for CHD: consider all the evidence.
The total body of evidence continues to support the view that higher consumption of n-6 PUFA lowers the risk of CHD, and together with emerging evidence on cardiovascular benefits of ALA, it would be reasonable to recommend increased consumption of both forms of PUFA.
Circulating Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study
High circulating linoleic acid, but not other n-6 PUFA, was inversely associated with total and CHD mortality in older adults, and lowest risk was evident with highest levels of both.
Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)
The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence.
DHA-enriched high-oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Consumption of CanolaDHA, a novel DHA-rich canola oil, improves HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure, thereby reducing FRS compared with other oils varying in unsaturated fatty acid composition.


n-6 Fatty acids and cardiovascular health: a review of the evidence for dietary intake recommendations
Recommendation for n-6 PUFA intake above 5 %, and ideally about 10 %, of total energy appears justified, and data from prospective cohort and interventional studies converge towards a specific protective role of dietary n- 6PUFA intake, in particular linoleic acid, against CVD.
Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico.
Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA led to a clinically important and satistically significant benefit and its effects on fatal cardiovascular events require further exploration.
Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils
Effects on CHD risk of removing PHVO from a person's diet vary depending on the TFA content of the PHVO and the fatty acid composition of the replacement fat or oil, with direct implications for reformulation of individual food products.
Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention
This advisory focuses primarily onLinoleic acid, an 18-carbon fatty acid with 2 double bonds, which accounts for 85% to 90% of the dietary omega-6 PUFA, recognizing that dietary AA, which can affect tissue AA levels,5 may have physiological sequelae.
Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence
Controlled trials and observational studies provide concordant evidence that consumption of TFA from partially hydrogenated oils adversely affects multiple cardiovascular risk factors and contributes significantly to increased risk of CHD events.
The effect of dietary advice on nutrient intakes: evidence from the diet and reinfarction trial (DART)
For each of the dietary aims, the advice had a substantial effect on intakes, as examined in a random subsample of 459 men who were taking part in a randomized controlled trial of secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and coronary heart disease.
  • M. Katan
  • Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2009
Jakobsen et al found that a low intake of saturated fatty acids and a proportionally higher intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with a significant reduction of coronary heart disease, adding to growing doubts about whether such diets prevent heart disease.