BACKGROUND microRNAs are generally understood to regulate gene expression through binding to target sequences within 3'-UTRs of mRNAs. Therefore, computational prediction of target sites is usually restricted to these gene regions. Recent experimental studies though have suggested that microRNAs may alternatively modulate gene expression by interacting with promoters. A database of potential microRNA target sites in promoters would stimulate research in this field leading to more understanding of complex microRNA regulatory mechanism. METHODOLOGY We developed a database hosting predicted microRNA target sites located within human promoter sequences and their associated genomic features, called microPIR (microRNA-Promoter Interaction Resource). microRNA seed sequences were used to identify perfect complementary matching sequences in the human promoters and the potential target sites were predicted using the RNAhybrid program. >15 million target sites were identified which are located within 5000 bp upstream of all human genes, on both sense and antisense strands. The experimentally confirmed argonaute (AGO) binding sites and EST expression data including the sequence conservation across vertebrate species of each predicted target are presented for researchers to appraise the quality of predicted target sites. The microPIR database integrates various annotated genomic sequence databases, e.g. repetitive elements, transcription factor binding sites, CpG islands, and SNPs, offering users the facility to extensively explore relationships among target sites and other genomic features. Furthermore, functional information of target genes including gene ontologies, KEGG pathways, and OMIM associations are provided. The built-in genome browser of microPIR provides a comprehensive view of multidimensional genomic data. Finally, microPIR incorporates a PCR primer design module to facilitate experimental validation. CONCLUSIONS The proposed microPIR database is a useful integrated resource of microRNA-promoter target interactions for experimental microRNA researchers and computational biologists to study the microRNA regulation through gene promoter. The database can be freely accessed from: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/micropir.