m‐Octopamine: Normal Occurrence with p‐Octopamine in Mammalian Sympathetic Nerves

@article{Ibrahim1985mOctopamineNO,
  title={m‐Octopamine: Normal Occurrence with p‐Octopamine in Mammalian Sympathetic Nerves},
  author={K. E. Ibrahim and Margaret W. Couch and C. M. Williams and Melvin J. Fregly and John M. Midgley},
  journal={Journal of Neurochemistry},
  year={1985},
  volume={44}
}
The development of a radiochemical enzyme assay for p‐octopamine in 1969 led to its identification in a large number of invertebrate nerve systems and in mammalian sympathetic nerves. The original method by which p‐octopamine was measured has now been found to be nonspecific; however, modifications of this procedure can determine both m‐ and p‐octopamine. We recently developed a new specific method for the unequivocal identification and quantitative determination in tissue of the six octopamine… 
Natural Occurrence and Metabolism of the Isomeric Octopamines and Synephrines
TLDR
It is concluded that p-octopamine is an invertebrate neurotransmitter and a cotransmitter with norepinephrine in mammalian sympathetic nerves (Axelrod and Saavedra, 1977) and that both m- and p-Octopamine are present in rat salivary gland and brain.
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TLDR
This review summarizes the present knowledge concerning the distribution and possible functions of the three positionally isomeric octopamines.
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  • S. Stohs
  • Biology
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TLDR
A need exists for both animal and human safety and efficacy studies involving oral administration of p-octopamine, which is considered to be a CNS stimulant in spite of the fact that it binds poorly to adrenergic receptors.
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TLDR
The roles of OCT in insect nervous systems at the behavioral and molecular levels are described, including the regulation of motivation, desensitization of sensory inputs, arousal, initiation, and maintenance of various rhythmic behaviors, hygiene behavior, and complex social behaviors.
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TLDR
The occurrence of p-and m-octopamine in the sympathetic nervous system and brain has led to the suggestion that they may function as co-transmitters or modulators of noradrenaline action.
Activities of Octopamine and Synephrine Stereoisomers on Octopaminergic Receptor Subtypes in Locust Skeletal Muscle
TLDR
The (−) enantiomers of all the structural isomers tested were more potent than the corresponding (+)‐forms with isomeric activity ratios varying between 2 and 480.
Octopamine and Phenylethylamine Inhibit Prolactin Secretion both In Vivo and In Vitro
TLDR
The first description of a specific endocrine action both in vivo and in vitro for octopamine and phenylethylamine is described, which could mean that their hypoprolactinemic action was mediated through the release of dopamine, or it could be a direct action at a dopaminergic receptor.
Activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on α‐adrenoceptors
TLDR
Based upon the known selectivities of these isomers for α‐adrenoceptor subtypes, it is concluded that the rat aorta contains only α1‐ adrenoceptors while the rabbit saphenous vein possesses predominantly α2‐adereoisomer antagonists.
Adrenergic Activities of Octopamine and Synephrine Stereoisomers
TLDR
The activities of the pure (-) and (+) forms of m - and p-OA on α–1, α–2, β–1 and β–2 adrenoceptors have now been determined.
β‐Adrenergic activities of octopamine and synephrine stereoisomers on guinea‐pig atria and trachea
TLDR
If m‐and p‐octopamine are co‐released with noradrenaline in amounts proportional to their concentration, their activities at these structures are too low to be physiologically significant.
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Natural Occurrence and Metabolism of the Isomeric Octopamines and Synephrines
TLDR
It is concluded that p-octopamine is an invertebrate neurotransmitter and a cotransmitter with norepinephrine in mammalian sympathetic nerves (Axelrod and Saavedra, 1977) and that both m- and p-Octopamine are present in rat salivary gland and brain.
m‐OCTOPAMINE, p‐OCTOPAMINE AND PHENYLETHANOLAMINE IN RAT BRAIN: A SENSITIVE, SPECIFIC ASSAY AND THE EFFECTS OF SOME DRUGS
Abstract— An enzyme radiochemical assay for p‐octopamine, m‐octopamine (norphenylephrine) and phenylethanolamine based on the N‐methylation of these amines by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N‐methyl
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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  • Biology
    Essays in neurochemistry and neuropharmacology
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TLDR
It is fair to say the authors know as much about octopamine and its role as a neuromodulator in vertebrate as they do about noradrenaline in vertebrates-only their ignorance isn't as well documented.
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TLDR
Minor modifications of the assay procedure make it suitable for the measurement of Phenylethanolamine, and this compound has been measured in rat organs after the administration of phenylethylamine.
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So far back as 19401 and again in 1948 2, it had been observed that extracts of posterior salivary glands of Octopus vulgaris possessed intense adrenaline-like actions on blood-pressure and isolated
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