l‐Carnitine: a nutritional modulator of glucocorticoid receptor functions

  title={l‐Carnitine: a nutritional modulator of glucocorticoid receptor functions},
  author={Salvatore Alesci and Massimo U. De Martino and Marco Mirani and Salvatore Benvenga and Francesco Trimarchi and Tomoshige Kino and George P. Chrousos},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
l‐Carnitine is an essential nutrient with a major role in cellular energy production. There is evidence that, at high doses, l‐carnitine might mimic some of the biological activities of glucocorticoids, especially immunomodulation. To explore the molecular basis of this effect, we tested the influence of l‐carnitine on glucocorticoid receptor‐α (GRα) functions. Millimolar concentrations of l‐carnitine, which were not cytotoxic in vitro, significantly reduced the whole cell binding of [3H… 

l‐Carnitine Is a Modulator of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Alpha

It is concluded that pharmacologic doses of LC can activate GRα and, via this mechanism, regulate glucocorticoid‐responsive genes, potentially sharing some of the biological and therapeutic properties of glucocORTicoids.

L-carnitine and PPARα-agonist fenofibrate are involved in the regulation of Carnitine Acetyltransferase (CrAT) mRNA levels in murine liver cells

Results indicate a cooperative interplay of L-carnitine and PPARα in transcriptional regulation of murine CrAT, which is of nutrigenomical relevance and creates experimental proof that the muCrAT gene clearly is a PPAR α target.

L‐Carnitine–L‐tartrate promotes human hair growth in vitro

It is suggested that l‐carnitine stimulates human scalp hair growth by up regulation of proliferation and down regulation of apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes in vitro and should be explored as a well‐tolerated, relatively safe adjuvant treatment in the management of androgenetic alopecia and other forms of hair loss.

L‐carnitine, a diet component and organic cation transporter OCTN ligand, displays immunosuppressive properties and abrogates intestinal inflammation

In vivo, protection from trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis was observed in LCAR‐treated mice and was attributed to the abrogation of both innate [interleukin‐1β and IL‐6 production] and adaptive (T cell proliferation in draining lymph nodes) immune responses.

Carnitine Enigma: From Antioxidant Action to Vitagene Regulation. Part 2. Transcription Factors and Practical Applications

It could be concluded that antioxidant actions of carnitine are associated to much extent with redox signaling in the cell and a development of carn itine-containing antioxidant compositions supplying via drinking water seems to be an important way forward in decreasing the detrimental consequence of various stresses in poultry and pig production.

L-Carnitine ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury and inhibits leukocyte death

The results suggest that L-Car, possibly via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates MTX-induced oxidative organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be promising in alleviating the systemic side-effects of chemotherapeutics.

Relationship between Carnitine, Fatty Acids and Insulin Resistance

Evidence is provided that L-carnitine supplementation in pregnancy (2 g/day) avoids a striking increase in plasma FFA, which are thought to be the main cause of insulin resistance and consequently gestational diabetes mellitus.



DNA binding properties of glucocorticosteroid receptors bound to the steroid antagonist RU‐486.

The results indicate that the binding of RU‐486 to glucocorticosteroid receptors mimics pharmacologically the properties of a class of receptor variants (nt‐) which are non‐functional and have reduced nuclear transfer and altered DNA binding capacity, substantiate the importance of DNA binding in receptor function.

Carnitine as a free radical scavenger in aging

Disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor assembly with heat shock protein 90 by a peptidic antiglucocorticoid.

The region from residue 232 to residue 265 of hsp90 is a domain critical for its association to GR, an association that is a prerequisite for receptor transcriptional activity, and demonstrates that targeting specific protein/protein interaction interfaces is a powerful means to specifically modulate nuclear receptor signaling pathways in a ligand-independent manner.

Effects of L-carnitine on serum triglyceride and cytokine levels in rat models of cachexia and septic shock.

It is concluded that carnitine has a therapeutic effect on morbidity and lipid metabolism in these disease models, and that these effects could be the result of down-regulation of cytokine production and/or increased clearance of cytokines.

Carnitine function and requirements during the life cycle

  • C. Rebouche
  • Medicine, Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1992
l‐Carnitine has been described as a “conditionally essential” nutrient for humans. Segments of the human population suggested as having a requirement for carnitine include infants (premature and

Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

In conclusion, L-carnitine is effective in both reversing and preventing symptoms of hyperthyroidism and has a beneficial effect on bone mineralization.

High dose L-carnitine improves immunologic and metabolic parameters in AIDS patients.

The data suggest that in vivo L-carnitine could prove useful in ameliorating both the immune response and lipid metabolism in patients with AIDS, irrespective of initial serum carnitines levels.

Anaesthetics modulate tumour necrosis factor α: effects of L-carnitine supplementation in surgical patients. Preliminary results.

In an attempt to ameliorate the metabolic response to surgical trauma, L-carnitine was administered to 20 surgical patients, then the circulating TNFα was measured and the results indicate that the levels of circulating T NFα were strongly increased following surgery and that L- carnItine administration resulted in a strong reduction of TNF α.

Modulatory effects of glucocorticoids and catecholamines on human interleukin-12 and interleukin-10 production: clinical implications.

It is suggested that the central nervous system may regulate IL-12 and IL-10 secretion and, hence, TH1/TH2 balance via the peripheral end-effectors of the stress system, which may cause a selective suppression of TH1 functions and a shift toward a TH2 cytokine pattern rather than generalized TH suppression.