doublesex is a mimicry supergene

@article{Kunte2014doublesexIA,
  title={doublesex is a mimicry supergene},
  author={Krushnamegh Kunte and W Y Zhang and Ayşe Tenger-Trolander and Daniela H. Palmer and A. Martin and Robert D. Reed and Sean P. Mullen and Marcus R. Kronforst},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2014},
  volume={507},
  pages={229-232}
}
One of the most striking examples of sexual dimorphism is sex-limited mimicry in butterflies, a phenomenon in which one sex—usually the female—mimics a toxic model species, whereas the other sex displays a different wing pattern. Sex-limited mimicry is phylogenetically widespread in the swallowtail butterfly genus Papilio, in which it is often associated with female mimetic polymorphism. In multiple polymorphic species, the entire wing pattern phenotype is controlled by a single Mendelian… 
Evolutionary biology: Sex, lies and butterflies
TLDR
Gene expression and DNA sequence variation data suggest that isoform expression differences and protein sequence evolution also contribute to the differences between doublesex mimicry alleles, so the P. polytes mimicry supergene can be summed up as a fusion of previous hypotheses: single-gene control but with help from multiple functional mutations.
Tracing the origin and evolution of supergene mimicry in butterflies
TLDR
It is shown that sexually dimorphic mimicry and female-limited polymorphism are evolutionarily related as a result of ancient balancing selection combined with independent origins of similar morphs in different lineages and secondary loss of polymorphism in other lineages.
A masculinizing supergene underlies an exaggerated male reproductive morph in a spider
TLDR
How extensive indel polymorphisms and duplications of regulatory genes may contribute to the evolution of co-adapted gene clusters, sex-limited reproductive morphs and the enigmatic evolution of exaggerated sexual traits in general is demonstrated.
Genomic architecture and functional unit of mimicry supergene in female limited Batesian mimic Papilio butterflies
TLDR
The structural features revealed in the Papilio mimicry supergene provide insight into the formation, maintenance and evolution of supergenes.
Parallel evolution of Batesian mimicry supergene in two Papilio butterflies, P. polytes and P. memnon
TLDR
The supergene structures revealed here suggest that independent evolutionary processes with different genetic mechanisms have led to parallel evolution of similar female-limited polymorphisms underlying Batesian mimicry in Papilio butterflies.
A genetic mechanism for female-limited Batesian mimicry in Papilio butterfly
TLDR
It is proposed that dsx(H) switches the coloration of predetermined wing patterns and that female-limited polymorphism is tightly maintained by chromosomal inversion, which is related to mimicry-related locus H.
The evolution and genetics of sexually dimorphic ‘dual’ mimicry in the butterfly Elymnias hypermnestra
TLDR
Examination of the population genomics and biogeography of the common palmfly Elymnias hypermnestra, a dual mimic in which female wing colour patterns are either dark brown or bright orange, demonstrates the repeatability of the evolution of sexual dimorphism.
Comparative genomics of the mimicry switch in Papilio dardanus
TLDR
The hypothesis that a single gene underlies wing pattern variation in P. dardanus is supported and SNP variation in the H region reveals evidence of non-neutral molecular evolution in the en gene alone and finds evidence for a duplication potentially driving physical constraints on recombination in the lamborni morph.
Molecular Mechanism and Evolutionary Process Underlying Female-Limited Batesian Mimicry in Papilio polytes
TLDR
It is proposed that dsx_H switches the coloration of predetermined patterns in female wings and that female-limited polymorphism is tightly kept by chromosomal inversion.
The mimetic wing pattern of Papilio polytes butterflies is regulated by a doublesex-orchestrated gene network
TLDR
Gene networks controlled by the mimicry-associated allele of doublesex, dsx-H, in butterflies that mimic an unpalatable species are investigated and it is found that dsX-H has a dual function: it induces mimetic gene networks and represses non-mimetic gene Networks, explaining its key role in the switch between mimetic and non-Mimetic female forms.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES
Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry
TLDR
The results indicate that allelic combinations at known wing-patterning loci have become locked together in a polymorphic rearrangement at the P locus, forming a supergene that acts as a simple switch between complex adaptive phenotypes found in sympatry.
The genetics of the mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes L.
  • C. Clarke, P. Sheppard
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1972
TLDR
The great similarity in the genetic structure of P. polytes and P. dardanus strongly suggests that selection for a mimetic polymorphism results in the evolution of very similar genetic control mechanisms in different species - that is to say it is the nature of the selection rather than the species involved which determines the genetic architecture.
The Genetics of the Mimetic Butterfly Papilio Memnon L.
TLDR
In P. memnon the dominance relationships of the monomorphic tailed and tailless condition indicate that dominance can be evolved even when the characters concerned are not polymorphic, which contrasts with the genetic control of Mullerian mimicry as evidenced in the Heliconids.
Colour pattern specification in the Mocker swallowtail Papilio dardanus: the transcription factor invected is a candidate for the mimicry locus H
TLDR
Findings make invected, and possibly its closely linked paralogue engrailed, strong candidates for H, supported by their known role in eyespot specification in nymphalid butterfly wings.
The Diversity and Evolution of Batesian Mimicry in Papilio Swallowtail Butterflies
  • K. Kunte
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2009
TLDR
A graphical model is presented that connects various mimicry types by hypothetical character state changes within a phylogenetic framework and is useful to test novel hypotheses regarding the diversity and evolutionary directionality of Batesian mimicry in other systems.
The genetics of polymorphism in the Lepidoptera.
  • E. Ford
  • Biology
    Advances in genetics
  • 1953
Diversification of doublesex function underlies morph-, sex-, and species-specific development of beetle horns
TLDR
It is shown that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species, and suggests that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait.
EVOLUTION OF DIVERSITY IN WARNING COLOR AND MIMICRY: Polymorphisms, Shifting
TLDR
These contrasting patterns can be explained, in part, by the shape of a “number-dependent” selection function first modeled by Fritz Muller in 1879: Purifying selectio...
GENETICS OF MIMICRY IN THE TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLIES, PAPILIO GLAUCUS AND P. CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE)
TLDR
Results from more than 12 yr of rearing tiger swallowtails, including interspecies hybrids, indicate that the absence of mimetic P. canadensis females is due to both a high frequency of the “suppressing” allele scan and low frequency ofThe black‐pigment‐determining b + allele in P. glaucus populations outside the hybrid zone is low.
...
...