Chromosomal segregation during mitosis as well as meiosis is considered to be regulated by multiple kinases, but the precise mechanism remains largely unknown. A mutation in Drosophila, designated aurora, was identified as a responsible gene for a chromosomal segregation defect and encodes a putative serine-threonine kinase. Here we have identified mammalian aurora homologues, designated aurora-related kinase (ARK) 1 and ARK2. Kinase domains of murine ARK1 and ARK2 showed 61 and 62% identity, respectively, to that of aurora at the amino acid levels, respectively. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the expression of ARK1 was correlated with G2/M phase, while ARK2 was expressed during S and G2/M phases. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that ARK2 was mainly localized to the midbody, while ARK1 has been reported to be localized to the spindle pole during mitosis. Collectively, these results suggest that these two kinases may have distinct roles with different expression timing and subcellular localization during the cell cycle progression. Interspecific backcross mapping revealed that Ark1 is located in a distal region of mouse chromosome 2, while Ark2 is located in a central region of mouse chromosome 11.