Zolpidem and rebound insomnia--a double-blind, controlled polysomnographic study in chronic insomniac patients.

@article{Monti1994ZolpidemAR,
  title={Zolpidem and rebound insomnia--a double-blind, controlled polysomnographic study in chronic insomniac patients.},
  author={Jaime M. Monti and Pierre Attali and Daniela Monti and Andreas Zipfel and B. de La Giclais and Paolo Lucio Morselli},
  journal={Pharmacopsychiatry},
  year={1994},
  volume={27 4},
  pages={
          166-75
        }
}
In a parallel-group, placebo-controlled, polysomnographic study with randomization, the possible occurrence of rebound insomnia was evaluated in 24 patients suffering from moderate to severe chronic insomnia and receiving either triazolam 0.5 mg, zolpidem 10 mg, or placebo. Treatment duration was 27 nights, followed by three placebo-controlled withdrawal nights. Both drugs showed significant efficacy compared to placebo during the active treatment period. A trend toward tolerance was noted in… 
A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study on the polysomnographic withdrawal effects of zopiclone, zolpidem and triazolam in healthy subjects
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that the risks of tolerance and dependency are low when administering zopiclone or zolpidem at the recommended doses.
Zolpidem, a Valuable Alternative to Benzodiazepine Hypnotics for Chronic Insomnia?
TLDR
After 3 – 4 weeks of zolpidem treatment, the percentage of non-rapid eye movement-4 sleep increased significantly, corresponding with a significant subjective improvement of sleep quality, indicating that zolPidem may restore physiological sleep.
Benzodiazepines and zolpidem for chronic insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy.
TLDR
Benzodiazepines and zolpidem produced reliable improvements in commonly measured parameters of sleep in patients with chronic insomnia, and presented challenges for developing evidence-based guidelines for the use of hypnotics in the management of chronic insomnia.
Zolpidem in the Treatment of Adult and Elderly Primary Insomnia Patients
TLDR
It is concluded that, when administered according to the manufacturer’s prescribing information, zolpidem is well tolerated and associated with minimal rebound insomnia and a low propensity to cause next-day residual effects, drug abuse, or dependence.
A new sublingual formulation of zolpidem for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia
TLDR
Edluar™, a new sublingual formulation of zolpidem that has been developed for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia, has a faster sleep-induction effect, whereas it did not differ from the oral formulation in terms of sleep maintenance or side effects.
Effect of Placebo Conditions on Polysomnographic Parameters in Primary Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis.
TLDR
An effect-size analysis of placebo conditions in randomized controlled drug trials addressing primary insomnia also including polysomnography suggests that there is a small to moderate yet significant and robust placebo response reducing the symptoms of insomnia.
Drug Treatment of Primary Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis of Polysomnographic Randomized Controlled Trials
TLDR
Focusing on efficacy, clinicians should favor benzodiazepine receptor agonists and classical Benzodiazepines over antidepressants over antidepressants (including low-dose doxepin) for primary insomnia treatment, but the additional consideration of different side effect profiles can lead to alternative treatment decisions.
...
...