Determining the Catalytic Activity of Transition Metal-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Using Surface Spectroscopic Analysis.
In low dimensional cuprates several interesting phenomena, including high Tc superconductivity, are deeply connected to electron correlations on Cu and the presence of the Zhang-Rice (ZR) singlet state. Here, we report on direct spectroscopic observation of the ZR state responsible for the low-energy physical properties in two isostructural A-site ordered cuprate perovskites, CaCu(3)Co(4)O(12) and CaCu(3)Cr(4)O(12) as revealed by resonant soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on the Cu L(3,2)- and O K-edges. These measurements reveal the signature of Cu in the high-energy 3+ (3d(8)), the typical 2+ (3d(9)), as well as features of the ZR singlet state (i.e., 3d(9)L, L denotes an oxygen hole). First principles GGA + U calculations affirm that the B-site cation controls the degree of Cu-O hybridization and, thus, the Cu valency. These findings introduce another avenue for the study and manipulation of cuprates, bypassing the complexities inherent to conventional chemical doping (i.e. disorder) that hinder the relevant physics.