Zero-point term and quantum eects in the Johnson noise of resistors : a critical appraisal

  title={Zero-point term and quantum eects in the Johnson noise of resistors : a critical appraisal},
  author={Laszlo B. Kish and Gunnar A. Niklasson and Claes G{\"o}ran Granqvist},
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantumtheoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the eect predicted by the FDT… CONTINUE READING


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