Zaleplon and triazolam in humans: acute behavioral effects and abuse potential

@article{Rush1999ZaleplonAT,
  title={Zaleplon and triazolam in humans: acute behavioral effects and abuse potential},
  author={Craig R Rush and Joseph M. Frey and Roland R. Griffiths},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={1999},
  volume={145},
  pages={39-51}
}
Abstract Zaleplon, a pyrazolopyrimidine that is under development as a hypnotic, produces its pharmacological effects at the benzodiazepine-recognition site on the GABAA benzodiazepine-receptor complex. Unlike most benzodiazepines, zaleplon binds selectively to the BZ1 (ω1) subtype of the benzodiazepine receptor. The present study compared the acute subject-rated effects, performance-impairing effects, and abuse potential of zaleplon and triazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine hypnotic, in 14… 
Zaleplon and triazolam: drug discrimination, plasma levels, and self-administration in baboons.
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Zaleplon and the non-subtype-selective hypnotic triazolam occasioned 100% drug-appropriate responding in baboons trained to discriminate lorazepam or pentobarbital from vehicle.
Acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam in humans
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Examination of the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of three drugs commonly used to treat sleep disorders, trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam, and placebo in ten male volunteers with histories of alcohol and drug abuse suggests that traZodone has less abuse potential than triazolate, and may be a viable alternative to benzodiazepine hypnotics in individuals with historiesof alcohol or drug abuse.
Relative Abuse Liability of Indiplon and Triazolam in Humans: A Comparison of Psychomotor, Subjective, and Cognitive Effects
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It is shown that zaleplon 10 mg has little or no residual effect when administered in the middle of the night, as late as 1 h before waking, and is devoid of impairment of driving abilities as assessed by actual driving 4’h after dose administration.
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Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Short-Acting Hypnosedatives
  • D. Drover
  • Medicine
    Clinical pharmacokinetics
  • 2004
TLDR
While zaleplon may be best indicated for the delayed onset of sleep, zolpidem and zopiclone may be better indicated for maintaining a complete night’s sleep.
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TLDR
Efficacy studies show that zaleplon is a suitable hypnotic for sleep initiation purposes, but it is less effective in sleep maintenance when compared with other hypnotics, and comparisons with new nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics should determine the importance of zalePLon in the future treatment of insomnia.
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  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on investigational drugs
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TLDR
It appears zaleplon possesses a reduced risk of tolerance compared to triazolam, is less likely to potentiate the effects of ethanol and is unlikely to produce amnestic effects, according to preclinical studies.
Ramelteon: a novel hypnotic lacking abuse liability and sedative adverse effects.
TLDR
Ramelteon demonstrated no significant effects indicative of potential for abuse or motor and cognitive impairment at up to 20 times the recommended therapeutic dose and may represent a useful alternative to existing insomnia medications.
A follow-up study of the acute behavioral effects of benzodiazepine-receptor ligands in humans: comparison of quazepam and triazolam.
TLDR
Across a sufficient range of doses, the performance-impairing effects of quazepam were similar to those of triazolam, and quzepam and triazlam produced comparable dose-dependent performance impairment and increased ratings of drug effect and drowsy.
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