Z_2 Gauge Theory of Electron Fractionalization in Strongly Correlated Systems

@article{Senthil2000Z\_2GT,
  title={Z\_2 Gauge Theory of Electron Fractionalization in Strongly Correlated Systems},
  author={Todadri Senthil and Matthew P. A. Fisher},
  journal={Physical Review B},
  year={2000},
  volume={62},
  pages={7850-7881}
}
We develop a new theoretical framework for describing and analyzing exotic phases of strongly correlated electrons which support excitations with fractional quantum numbers. Starting with a class of microscopic models believed to capture much of the essential physics of the cuprate superconductors, we derive a new gauge theory\char22{}based upon a discrete Ising or ${Z}_{2}$ symmetry\char22{}which interpolates naturally between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator and a conventional d-wave… 

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