Z mode radio sounding from IMAGE of field aligned electron density and ducts

Abstract

Radio sounding from IMAGE has led to the observations of a large variety of ducted and nonducted fast Z mode echoes. The ducted echoes were observed when IMAGE was located inside a Z mode “cavity,” whereas the nonducted echoes were observed both inside and outside of the cavity. We present a new ray tracing method to measure field aligned electron density… (More)

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