Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: relationship to beliefs about goodness.

@article{Heyman1992YoungCV,
  title={Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: relationship to beliefs about goodness.},
  author={Gail D. Heyman and Carol S. Dweck and Katherine W. M Cain},
  journal={Child development},
  year={1992},
  volume={63 2},
  pages={401-15}
}
Motivational helplessness, linked to conceptions of intelligence, has been well documented in older children. While some researchers have reported that children just starting school are motivationally invulnerable, others have found evidence of helplessness when these children encounter failure. The present study seeks to determine whether the reactions associated with helplessness can be identified in a new context, that of criticism, and whether any such responses are related to the child's… CONTINUE READING