Dissecting the immune pathways stimulated following injection vaccination of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against enteric redmouth disease (ERM).
Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) is a serious septicemic bacterial disease of salmonid fish species. It is caused by Yersinia ruckeri, a Gram-negative rod-shaped enterobacterium. It has a wide host range, broad geographical distribution, and causes significant economic losses in the fish aquaculture industry. The disease gets its name from the subcutaneous hemorrhages, it can cause at the corners of the mouth and in gums and tongue. Other clinical signs include exophthalmia, darkening of the skin, splenomegaly and inflammation of the lower intestine with accumulation of thick yellow fluid. The bacterium enters the fish via the secondary gill lamellae and from there it spreads to the blood and internal organs. Y. ruckeri can be detected by conventional biochemical, serological and molecular methods. Its genome is 3.7 Mb with 3406-3530 coding sequences. Several important virulence factors of Y. ruckeri have been discovered, including haemolyin YhlA and metalloprotease Yrp1. Both non-specific and specific immune responses of fish during the course of Y. ruckeri infection have been well characterized. Several methods of vaccination have been developed for controlling both biotype 1 and biotype 2 Y. ruckeri strains in fish. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding enteric redmouth disease and Y. ruckeri: diagnosis, genome, virulence factors, interaction with the host immune responses, and the development of vaccines against this pathogen.