Yersinia pestis and the plague of Justinian 541-543 AD: a genomic analysis.

@article{Wagner2014YersiniaPA,
  title={Yersinia pestis and the plague of Justinian 541-543 AD: a genomic analysis.},
  author={David M. Wagner and Jennifer Klunk and Michaela Harbeck and Alison M Devault and Nicholas Waglechner and Jason W. Sahl and Jacob M. Enk and D. N. Birdsell and Melanie Kuch and Candice Y Lumibao and Debi Poinar and Talima R. Pearson and Mathieu Fourment and B. Golding and Julia M Riehm and David J. D. Earn and Sharon N DeWitte and Jean-Marie Rouillard and Gisela Grupe and Ingrid Wiechmann and James B. Bliska and Paul S Keim and Holger Christian Scholz and Edward C. Holmes and Hendrik N. Poinar},
  journal={The Lancet. Infectious diseases},
  year={2014},
  volume={14 4},
  pages={
          319-26
        }
}
BACKGROUND Yersinia pestis has caused at least three human plague pandemics. The second (Black Death, 14-17th centuries) and third (19-20th centuries) have been genetically characterised, but there is only a limited understanding of the first pandemic, the Plague of Justinian (6-8th centuries). To address this gap, we sequenced and analysed draft genomes of Y pestis obtained from two individuals who died in the first pandemic. METHODS Teeth were removed from two individuals (known as A120 and… 
Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes provide no evidence for the origins or spread of the Justinianic Plague
TLDR
The contested historical context of the presented genomes with the Justinianic Plague is questioned and it is shown that the lower coverage genome might be rather related to the Black Death (1346–1353 AD).
Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century
TLDR
Ancient DNA recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic, excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, indicating long-term persistence of Y. pests in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host.
Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes from across Western Europe reveal early diversification during the First Pandemic (541–750)
TLDR
Six new genomes from Britain, France, Germany and Spain are presented, demonstrating the geographic range of plague during the First pandemic and showing microdiversity in the Early Medieval Period and a novel methodological approach assessing SNPs in ancient bacterial genomes is presented.
A High-Coverage Yersinia pestis Genome from a Sixth-Century Justinianic Plague Victim
TLDR
A new high-coverage (17.9-fold) Y. pestis genome obtained from a sixth-century skeleton recovered from a southern German burial site enables the detection of 30 unique substitutions as well as structural differences that have not been previously described.
Molecular history of plague.
  • M. Drancourt, D. Raoult
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2016
TLDR
Palaeomicrobiologic data confirmed that two historical pandemics swept over Europe from probable Asian sources and possible two-way-ticket journeys back from Europe to Asia, and suggested that plague was transmissible by human ectoparasites such as lice, and that Y. pestis was able to persist for months in the soil.
Yersinia pestis strains isolated in natural plague foci of Caucasus and Transcaucasia in the context of the global evolution of species.
TLDR
The modern population structure of the plague pathogen is described and the place of the strains isolated in the natural foci of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia in the structures of the global population of Y. pestis is specified.
Yersinia pestis and the three plague pandemics
1reports the sequencing of a draft genome of Yersinia pestis extracted from two bodies interred at Aschheim, Bavaria, in the late 6th century CE. 2 However, this study goes beyond the genetic
Phylogeny and Classification of Yersinia pestis Through the Lens of Strains From the Plague Foci of Commonwealth of Independent States
TLDR
The established phylogeny of the etiological agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, is not perfect, as it does not take into account the strains from numerous natural foci of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), so the current population structure of Y. pestis species has been refined.
Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period
TLDR
The presented phylogeny could support the hypothesis of an entry of plague into Western European ports through distinct waves of introduction during the Medieval Period, possibly by means of fur trade routes, as well as the recirculation of plague within the human population via trade routes and human movement.
Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes from across Western Europe reveal early diversification during the First Pandemic (541–750)
TLDR
Eight genomes from Britain, France, Germany, and Spain are presented, demonstrating the geographic range of plague during the First Pandemic and showing microdiversity in the Early Medieval Period, and a methodological approach assessing single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ancient bacterial genomes is presented, facilitating qualitative analyses of low coverage genomes from a metagenomic background.
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