Yellow Fever: The Recurring Plague

@article{Tomori2004YellowFT,
  title={Yellow Fever: The Recurring Plague},
  author={Oyewale Tomori},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences},
  year={2004},
  volume={41},
  pages={391 - 427}
}
  • O. Tomori
  • Published 1 January 2004
  • Medicine
  • Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine, yellow fever (YF) remains a disease of significant public health importance, with an estimated 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths annually. The disease is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America; nearly 90% of YF cases and deaths occur in Africa. It is a significant hazard to unvaccinated travelers to these endemic areas. Virus transmission occurs between humans, mosquitoes, and monkeys. The mosquito, the true reservoir of… 

Yellow fever: a disease that has yet to be conquered.

TLDR
Molecular epidemiologic data suggest there are seven genotypes of YFV that are geographically separated, and outbreaks of disease are more associated with particular genotypes, which present serious potential public health problems to large population centers.

The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa

TLDR
This review describes historical findings, highlights a number of disease indicators, and provides clarification regarding the natural history, recent emergence and future risk of YF in East Africa.

Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

  • S. WassermanP. TambyahP. Lim
  • Medicine
    International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • 2016

Modelling the large-scale yellow fever outbreak in Luanda, Angola, and the impact of vaccination

TLDR
A refined mathematical model is provided, combined with modern likelihood-based statistical inference techniques, to assess and reconstruct important epidemiological processes underlying Angola’s YF outbreak, which suggests the outbreak occurred in two waves.

New Treatment Strategies for Dengue and other Flaviviral Diseases

TLDR
There are currently no vaccines nor antiviral drugs available for dengue viruses; the only effective way to prevent epidemic DF/DHF is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aeg ypti.

Arboviruses in the East African Community partner states: a review of medically important mosquito-borne Arboviruses

TLDR
Characteristics of 24 mosquito-borne arboviruses indigenous to the EAC are reviewed, including lesser or poorly understood viruses, like Batai virus (BATV) and Ndumu virus (NDUV), which may escape their origins under perfect conditions to establish a foothold in new geographical locations.

Knowledge and attitude of Indian expatriate working at Gondar, Ethiopia regarding yellow fever vaccination: a survey

Yellow fever is a flavivirus infection that is transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes of the species Aedes or Haemagogus spp. Humans and non-human primates are the main vertebrate hosts

The response to re-emergence of Yellow Fever in Nigeria, 2017.

  • W. NwachukwuH. Yusuff C. Ihekweazu
  • Medicine
    International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • 2020

Mosquito-borne arboviruses of African origin: review of key viruses and vectors

TLDR
The conclusion reached is that increased human population growth in decades ahead coupled with increased international travel and trade is likely to sustain and increase the threat of further geographical spread of current and new arboviral disease.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 141 REFERENCES

Yellow fever: an update.

  • T. Monath
  • Medicine
    The Lancet. Infectious diseases
  • 2001

Epidemiology of Yellow Fever

TLDR
It has been suggested that other arthropods may possibly harbour the yellow fever virus, such arthropod vectors either having a longer life than ædine mosquitoes or being able to transmit the virus hereditarily.

Does restricted distribution limit access and coverage of yellow fever vaccine in the United States?

TLDR
The recent upsurge in yellow fever activity has been associated with an increased risk for infection among unimmunized travelers, and Immunity develops rapidly after a single dose and is extraordinarily durable, probably lifelong.

Impact of yellow fever on the developing world.

  • O. Tomori
  • Medicine
    Advances in virus research
  • 1999

Epidemic yellow fever caused by an incompetent mosquito vector.

  • B. MillerT. MonathW. TabachnickV. Ezike
  • Medicine
    Tropical medicine and parasitology : official organ of Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Gesellschaft and of Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit
  • 1989
TLDR
It is demonstrated, for the first time, that, in the presence of high population density an incompetent mosquito vector can initiate and maintain virus transmission resulting in an epidemic.

Yellow fever: a decade of reemergence.

TLDR
The total of 18 735 yellow fever cases and 4522 deaths reported from 1987 to 1991 represents the greatest amount of yellow fever activity reported to the World Health Organization for any 5-year period since 1948.

Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

TLDR
It is hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

Urban yellow fever epidemic in western Nigeria, 1987.

Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus in Peru

TLDR
The concurrent appearance of at least four variants during the 1995 epidemic and the genetic stability of separate virus lineages over time, indicate that Peruvian YFV is locally maintained and circulates continuously in discrete foci of enzootic transmission.

Experimental Transmission of Yellow Fever to Laboratory Animals.

TLDR
The clinical course of the disease and the lesions produced by the virus in Macacus rhesus were similar to those found in human yellow fever, and attempts to cultivate the virus either from infectious blood or from filtered mosquito emulsions were negative.
...