Yeast abundance and species diversity in the colonies of Formica aquilonia ants in birch–pine grass forest near Novosibirsk, Russia, were studied. The average yeast number in the anthill material was 103–104 CFU/g, reaching 105 CFU/g in the hatching chambers. Typical litter species (Trichosporon moniliiforme and Cystofilobasidium capitatum) were predominant in soil and litter around the anthills. Apart from these species, ascomycete species of the family Debaryomycetaceae, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Schwanniomyces vanrijiae were predominant in the anthill material. Yeast population of the ant’ bodies consisted exclusively of the members of the last two species. Thus, highly specific yeast communities formed in the colonies of Formica aquilonia ants differ from the communities of surrounding soil. These differences are caused by environment-forming activity of the ants.