Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.

@article{Rosser2000YchromosomalDI,
  title={Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.},
  author={Zo{\"e} H. Rosser and Tatiana Zerjal and Matthew E. Hurles and Maarja Adojaan and Dragan Alavantic and Ant{\'o}nio Amorim and William Amos and Maickel Armenteros and Eduardo Arroyo and Guido Barbujani and Gunhild Beckman and L. E. Beckman and Jaume Bertranpetit and Elena Bosch and Daniel G. Bradley and Gaute Brede and G Cooper and H B C{\^o}rte-Real and Peter de Knijff and Ronny Decorte and YE Dubrova and Oleg V. Evgrafov and Anja Gilissen and Sanja Gli{\vs}i{\'c} and Mukaddes G{\"o}lge and Emmeline W. Hill and Anna Jeziorowska and Luba V Kalaydjieva and Manfred Kayser and T Kivisild and Sergey A. Kravchenko and Astrīda Krūmiņa and Vaidutis Kučinskas and Joāo Lavinha and L. A. Livshits and Patrizia Malaspina and Simona Maria and Ken McElreavey and Tomas Meitinger and A. V. Mikelsaar and Robert John Mitchell and Khedoudja Nafa and J Nicholson and S. Ragnar Norby and Arpita Pandya and Jüri Parik and Philippos C. Patsalis and L Pereira and Borut Peterlin and Gerli Rosengren Pielberg and Maria Jo{\~a}o Prata and Carlo Previder{\`e} and Lutz Roewer and Siiri Rootsi and David C. Rubinsztein and Joseph Saillard and Fabr{\'i}cio R. Santos and G Stefanescu and Bryan C. Sykes and Aslıhan Tolun and Richard Villems and Chris Tyler-Smith and Mark A. Jobling},
  journal={American journal of human genetics},
  year={2000},
  volume={67 6},
  pages={
          1526-43
        }
}
Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations… Expand
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