Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome

  title={Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome},
  author={Paul D. McGeoch and David Brang and Tao Song and Roland R. Lee and Mingxiong Huang and Vilayanur S. Ramachandran},
  journal={Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery \& Psychiatry},
  pages={1314 - 1319}
Background Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Methods Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography… 

The desire for healthy limb amputation: structural brain correlates and clinical features of xenomelia.

The predominantly right-sided cortical abnormalities are in line with a strong bias for left-sided limbs as the target of the amputation desire, evident both in this sample and in previously described populations with xenomelia.

When having a limb means feeling overcomplete. Xenomelia, the chronic sense of disownership and the right parietal lobe hypothesis

The presence of both structural and functional multi-layered brain abnormalities in xenomelia suggests a multifactorial aetiology; however, as the prevalence of correlational studies, causal relationships remain to be investigated.

White Matter Abnormalities in Body Integrity Dysphoria

Previous results showing alterations in areas tuned to the processing of the sensorimotor representations of the affected leg, and to higher-order components of bodily representation such as the body image were confirmed and extended.

Shape alterations of basal ganglia and thalamus in xenomelia

Brain Abnormalities in Individuals with a Desire for a Healthy Limb Amputation: Somatosensory, Motoric or Both? A Task-Based fMRI Verdict

It is concluded that BID is associated with altered integration of somatosensory and, to a lesser extent, motor signals, involving limb-specific cortical maps and brain regions where the first integration of body-related signals is achieved through convergence.

The Desire for Amputation or Paralyzation: Evidence for Structural Brain Anomalies in Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID)

The results suggest that BIID is associated with structural brain anomalies and might result from a dysfunction in the integration of multisensory information, leading to the feeling of disunity between the mental and physical body shape.

The antero-dorsal precuneal cortex supports specific aspects of bodily awareness.

The present findings indicate a critical role of the antero-dorsal precuneus in specific aspects of bodily awareness and in the maintenance of body schema.

Could Brain–Computer Interface Be a New Therapeutic Approach for Body Integrity Dysphoria?

Drawing on recent findings relating to functional and structural brain correlates of BID, the idea of brain–computer interface (BCI)/neurofeedback approaches to target altered patterns of brain activity, promote re-ownership of the limb, and/or attenuate stress and negativity associated with the altered body representation is introduced.



Spatial frames of reference and somatosensory processing: a neuropsychological perspective.

  • G. Vallar
  • Psychology, Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1997
There is evidence that the sensory stimulations that modulate left somatosensory deficits affect left motor disorders in a similar, direction-specific, fashion and that these stimulations may improve or worsen a number of manifestations of the neglect syndrome.

Somatoparaphrenia: a body delusion. A review of the neuropsychological literature

Somatoparaphrenia is often brought about by extensive right-sided lesions, but patients with posterior (parietal-temporal), and insular damage are on record, as well as a few patients with subcortical lesions.

Beyond re-membering: phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs.

A series of behavioral, imaging, and neurophysiological experiments with a university-educated woman born without forearms and legs indicate that body parts that have never been physically developed can be represented in sensory and motor cortical areas.

The Vestibular Cortex: Its Locations, Functions, and Disorders

Abstract: Evidence is presented that the multisensory parieto‐insular cortex is the human homologue of the parieto‐insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) in the monkey and is involved in the perception of

The perception of phantom limbs. The D. O. Hebb lecture.

It is suggested that patients with phantom limbs provide a valuable opportunity not only for exploring neural plasticity in the adult human brain but also for understanding the relationship between the activity of sensory neurons and conscious experience.

Anosognosia for motor and sensory deficits after unilateral brain damage: a review.

It is made that anosognosia for sensory and motor neurological deficits should be considered as a multi-component syndrome, including a number of specific disorders that are due to the impairment of discrete monitoring systems, specific for the different supervised functions.

Misoplegia: a review of the literature and a case without hemiplegia

Brain damage may cause profound changes in people’s attitudes towards their own bodies, and altered limb perception includes asomatognosia (lack of awareness of a part of the body), somatoparaphrenia ( lack of ownership of a paralysed limb), the experience of supernumerary phantom limbs, personification, and misoplegia.

Hemianopia, hemianaesthesia, and hemiplegia after right and left hemisphere damage. A hemispheric difference.

It is suggested that left spatial neglect is the factor underlying this hemispheric difference in somatosensory, visual half-field and motor deficits contralateral to a hemispheres lesion.


The phenomenon of nonperception of disease has been observed in patients with cortical blindness from bilateral lesion of the occipital lobe and in persons with visual field defects from cerebral hemiplegia.