XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication

@article{Moalem2012XXMS,
  title={XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication},
  author={Sharon Moalem and Riyana Babul‐Hirji and Dmitri J. Stavropolous and Diane K. Wherrett and Darius J. B{\"a}gli and Paul Q Thomas and David Chitayat},
  journal={American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A},
  year={2012},
  volume={158A}
}
Differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testis is initiated by the Y chromosome‐linked gene SRY (Sex‐determining Region Y) through upregulation of its autosomal direct target gene SOX9 (Sry‐related HMG box‐containing gene 9). Sequence and chromosome homology studies have shown that SRY most probably evolved from SOX3, which in humans is located at Xq27.1. Mutations causing SOX3 loss‐of‐function do not affect the sex determination in mice or humans. However, transgenic mouse studies have… 
Interchromosomal insertional translocation at Xq26.3 alters SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal.
TLDR
This is the first demonstration of altered SoX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal and suggests that SOX3 can substitute for SRY to initiate male development in humans.
Human sex-determination and disorders of sex-development (DSD).
Refining the regulatory region upstream of SOX9 associated with 46,XX testicular disorders of Sex Development (DSD)
TLDR
Three phenotypically normal patients presenting with azoospermia and 46,XX testicular DSD are identified and a duplication refines the minimal region associated with 46, XX‐SRY negative DSD to a 40.7–41.9  kb element located ∼600 kb upstream of SOX9.
Copy number variation in the region harboring SOX9 gene in dogs with testicular/ovotesticular disorder of sex development (78,XX; SRY-negative)
TLDR
Two highly polymorphic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) upstream of SOX9 and CNVR2 encompassing CanRevSex were identified and it was observed that the average number of copies in CNVR1 was higher in XX DSD than in control animals.
Testis development in the absence of SRY: chromosomal rearrangements at SOX9 and SOX3
TLDR
Collectively in this cohort of 19 novel cases of SRY-negative 46,XX DSD, the duplications upstream of SOX9 account for ~10.5% of the cases, and are responsible for the disease phenotype, even when inherited from a normal father.
Co-option of Sox3 as the male-determining factor on the Y chromosome in the fish Oryzias dancena.
TLDR
This work uses positional cloning to identify the sex-determining locus of a medaka-related fish, Oryzias dancena, and finds that the locus on the Y chromosome contains a cis-regulatory element that upregulates neighbouring Sox3 expression in developing gonad.
A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication
TLDR
Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management.
Disorders of Sex Determination
TLDR
A 33-year-old patient who had a small testicular size, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and nonobstructive azoospermia is presented, focusing on the approaches to diagnosis and the lessons learned and review shortly the genetics of human sex determination.
46,XX Male Disorder of Sexual Development: A Case Report
TLDR
An adolescent who presented with low testicular volume and who was diagnosed as a 46,XX male was reported, and SRY positivity was demonstrated in the patient by fluorescence in situ hybridization method.
Methylation Patterns of SOX3, SOX9, and WNT4 Genes in Gonads of Dogs with XX (SRY-Negative) Disorder of Sexual Development
TLDR
The SOX3 promoter showed significantly higher methylation in the ovotesticular XX DSD cases and the testicular XXDSD and control males, suggesting that SOX 3 methylation may play a role in canine XX D SD pathogenesis.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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