X-ray lasers for structural and dynamic biology.

  title={X-ray lasers for structural and dynamic biology.},
  author={John C. H. Spence and Uwe Weierstall and Henry N. Chapman},
  journal={Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society},
  volume={75 10},
Research opportunities and techniques are reviewed for the application of hard x-ray pulsed free-electron lasers (XFEL) to structural biology. These include the imaging of protein nanocrystals, single particles such as viruses, pump--probe experiments for time-resolved nanocrystallography, and snapshot wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) from molecules in solution. The use of femtosecond exposure times, rather than freezing of samples, as a means of minimizing radiation damage is shown to open… CONTINUE READING