X-ray diffraction of Langmuir-Blodgett films: Establishing a new method for the calculation of electron density distributions from a single set of intensity data☆

  title={X-ray diffraction of Langmuir-Blodgett films: Establishing a new method for the calculation of electron density distributions from a single set of intensity data☆},
  author={M. V. Frieling and H. Bradaczek and W. Durfee},
  journal={Thin Solid Films},
Abstract A new method for direct determination of the signs of X-ray diffraction reflections from Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films has been established. It is based on the ability to separate the Q0 function, the convolution square of the unknown structure ϱ0, from the generalized Patterson function (Q function) of the bilayer stack and on the existence of a unique convolution square root. The only restrictions are the existence of a centre of symmetry and that the system is bounded in space even… Expand
Membrane: A program for simulation and analysis of x‐ray diffraction patterns of thin multilayer films
Investigations of multibilayered films by X-ray diffraction have successfully been applied to biological material and contributed a lot of structural information about biological membranes. Expand
X-Ray Scattering in Analysis of Polymers
It has been proved that X-rays play a very important role in the characterization of polymers. A wealth of information concerning polymer structures and morphologies are accessible by using X-rayExpand
Langmuir-Blodgett Films: Past, Present and Future
Research activities on organic thin films of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers and multilayers are continuously increasing because of expectations for applications and this active field is reviewed.Expand
Fluorescence as probe for transport and lateral order in vapor grown Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) multilayer-type single crystals of anthracene chromophores with fatty acid tails
Fluorescence spectra of anthracene moieties with fatty acid tails attached at the 2-position are reported for Langmuir-Blodgett(LB)-type multilayer configurations obtained as single crystals in theExpand
Langmuir-Blodgett films of biological molecules
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses some ideas about the application of the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique for studying model systems of biological objects. Proteins in nature exist asExpand
Characterization and Properties
This chapter concentrates on the characterization of Langmuir—Blodgett (LB) monolayer and multilayer films on solid surfaces. Experimental techniques to study the properties of monolayers floating onExpand
Construction of highly ordered lamellar nanostructures through Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of molecularly thin titania nanosheets tens of micrometers wide and their excellent dielectric properties.
The obtained films showed superior dielectric and insulating properties as a reflection of the highly organized film nanoarchitecture comparable to artificial lattice films produced via modern vapor-phase deposition processes. Expand
Ultrafast Light-Induced Electron-Hole Pair Separation Along Oriented Molecular Clusters in a Langmuir-Blodgett Film
Abstract Supermolecules TA(4)P, i.e. 4-[p-N-methyl-N-[4-(3-perylenyl)-butyl]amino-phenyl]-2,6-diphenyl-thiopyrylium perchlorate, of elongated shape were synthesized consisting of a hydrophilicExpand
Langmuir−Blodgett film structure
Abstract Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films occupy a unique niche at the crossroads of materials science, complex fluids, and biophysics. They have many similarities to inorganic epitaxial films due to theExpand
Anisotropic DC Electrical Conductivity and AC Response in C22-Quinolium (TCNQ) LB Films at Room Temperature
Abstract Ultra-thin organic films of C22-Quinolium (TCNQ) were deposited onto ordinary microscope slide-glass substrates with a Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Surface pressure(π) - area(A) isothermsExpand


X-ray small angle scattering. A new deconvolution method for evaluating electron density distributions from small angle scattering diagrams.
  • E. H. Pape
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Biophysical journal
  • 1974
A new and direct deconvolution method on the basis of Fourier series is presented which is suitable for one-dimensional centrosymmetrical (or antisymmetrical) density distributions. Expand
Direct determination of the structure of barium stearate multilayers by x-ray diffraction.
Diffraction of X-rays is recorded from barium stearate multilayer systems with from 2 to 60 double layers or unit cells. The generalized Patterson function P'(x) is calculated by an integral FourierExpand
X-ray diffraction of myelin membrane. II. Determination of the phase angles of the frog sciatic nerve by heavy atom labeling and calculation of the electron density distribution of the membrane.
The phase signs of the five main X-ray reflections from normal frog sciatic nerve have been determined as all positive using a technique of labeling with very small amounts of heavy metal to give the best fit of the combined intensity data of normal and swollen myelin membranes. Expand
A direct method for determination of membrane electron density profiles on an absolute scale
A novel method of directly determining both the phases of the X-ray reflections and an absolute electron density scale is described, and how the method has been successfully tested on lecithin/cholesterol bilayers. Expand
A pattern-recognition approach to the phase problem: application to the X-ray diffraction study of biological membranes and model systems.
The technique is well-suited for routine analysis on a computer, and several applications are described; the examples are myelin and a variety of lipid-water phases, all centrosymmetric structures which display a crystalline order in one, two or three dimensions. Expand
Highly organized aromatic molecular systems using Langmuir-Blodgett films: Structure, optical properties and probable epitaxy of anthracene-derivative multilayers
The preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers of lightly substituted derivatives of a model aromatic (anthracene) has recently been reported; the anthracene was 9,10-substituted with a polar groupExpand
X-ray analysis of retinal photoreceptor structure.
X-ray diffraction intensities from frog and cattle retinal rod segments have been interpreted in terms of an electron density distribution along the rod axis and it has been demonstrated that the electron density levels of the asymmetric profile are realistic whereas those of the symmetrical profile are unrealistic. Expand
The interpretation of low-angle X-ray data from planar and concentric multilayered structures. The use of one-dimensional electron density strip models.
The use of one-dimensional electron density strip models in interpreting low-angle X-ray data from planar and concentric multilayered structures and Fourier transforms, normalization constants, and Patterson functions are derived for certain strip models. Expand
The structure of lipid bilayers and the effects of general anaesthetics. An x-ray and neutron diffraction study.
It is concluded that the lipid bilayer per se is not the primary site of action of general anaesthetics, and the bilayers show increased disorder while maintaining constant membrane thickness at surgical concentrations. Expand
Treatment of low angle x-ray data from planar and concentric multilayered structures.
Low angle X-ray diffraction can be recorded from planar and concentric multilayered (biological) structures and the relation between the observed intensities and the Fourier transform of the unit cell is required for planar structures. Expand