X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging as a novel method to visualize low-density scaffolds in soft tissue engineering.

Abstract

Scaffold visualization is challenging yet essential to the success of various tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) as a novel method for the visualization of low density engineered scaffolds in soft tissue. Imaging of the scaffolds made from poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and chitosan was conducted using synchrotron radiation-based radiography, in-line phase-contrast imaging (in-line PCI), and DEI techniques as well as laboratory-based radiography. Scaffolds were visualized in air, water, and rat muscle tissue. Compared with the images from X-ray radiography and in-line PCI techniques, DEI images more clearly show the structure of the low density scaffold in air and have enhanced image contrast. DEI was the only technique able to visualize scaffolds embedded in unstained muscle tissue; this method could also define the microstructure of muscle tissue in the boundary areas. At a photon energy of 20 KeV, DEI had the capacity to image PLLA/chitosan scaffolds in soft tissue with a sample thickness of up to 4 cm. The DEI technique can be applied at high X-ray energies, thus facilitating lower in vivo radiation doses to tissues during imaging as compared to conventional radiography.

DOI: 10.1089/ten.tec.2011.0102
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@article{Zhu2011XrayDE, title={X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging as a novel method to visualize low-density scaffolds in soft tissue engineering.}, author={Ning Zhu and Dean Chapman and David L Cooper and David J. Schreyer and Xiongbiao Chen}, journal={Tissue engineering. Part C, Methods}, year={2011}, volume={17 11}, pages={1071-80} }