Four polymorphic sites of the short arm of the X chromosome were studied in two racial groups from India, the Assamese and the Malayalee. Since the allelic frequencies of the two groups did not differ markedly from each other, the data from the two populations were pooled. The frequency of the A2 allele was 0.57 for the L1.28 probe, 0.20 for the RC8 probe, 0.28 for the pD2 probe and 0.11 for the L754 probe. The A3 allelic fragment of the RC8 probe was not found among 67 Indians, and in one Assamese woman an additional 7.0-kilobase fragment was found. The differences between the Indian population and other ethnic groups were analyzed.