Long-term follow-up of females with unbalanced X;Y translocations—reproductive and nonreproductive consequences
A 13 year old girl referred for chromosome analysis because of disproportionate short stature (short neck, curved legs, pectus excavatum) with an initial clinical diagnosis of Turner's syndrome was found to have the karyotype 46,X, + der(X) in 100% of her blood lymphocytes. By means of conventional differential staining (QFH/AcD, FPG, and RBA banding) supplemented with distamycin A treatment, the karyotype of the proband was interpreted as 46,X,t(X;Y) (p22.3;q11). The rearranged marker X chromosome was found to be active in 91% of lymphocytes studied. PCR analysis with Y chromosome specific oligoprimers showed the presence of some Y chromosome long arm DNA in both lymphocyte and gonadal tissue biopsy cells. At laparoscopy the patient was found to have small gonads with a rudimentary uterus and fallopian tubes. Histological examination of gonadal tissue showed primary follicles with dystrophic changes of the germ cells and numerous follicular cysts (polycystic ovaries). The proband's phenotype and its correlation with the genetic imbalance of the rearranged X chromosomes, as well as with non-random t(X;Y) chromosome inactivation, are briefly discussed.