X-Ray Single Crystal Photographs of Insulin

  title={X-Ray Single Crystal Photographs of Insulin},
  author={Dorothy Crowfoot},
  • D. Crowfoot
  • Published 13 April 1935
  • Materials Science
  • Nature
SINCE insulin was first prepared crystalline1 in 1926, several efforts have been made to obtain X-ray photographs of the crystals. The first attempts of W. H. George2 by the powder method failed to show any pattern indicative of a crystal structure, and though later long spacings were reported by G. L. Clark and K. E. Korrigan3, it was impossible to base any unambiguous interpretation on their results. The fact that pepsin could be made to give a single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern4… Expand
The Two Crystalline Modifications of Insulin
PROF. E. B. MATHEWS' first examination of Abel's crystalline insulin showed the presence of two types of insulin crystals1. One of these, the so-called prismatic or needle variety, had markedExpand
Crystallographic Measurements and the Structure of Protein Molecules as They Are
  • D. Hodgkin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1979
A brief account of the history and prehistory of protein crystallography that determined the authors' thinking in the thirties and forties is proposed. Expand
X-ray analysis and the structure of insulin.
This chapter discusses the use of X-ray technique to study the structure of insulin, and very possibly the C peptide provides both an additional template for chain support and a protective sheath over the active surface during transport of insulin to the β granule. Expand
The binding of transition metal ions in insulin crystals.
X-ray diffraction data are presented which suggest that cupric insulin crystals are isomorphous with the much studied zinc ones, and the two-nitrogen hyperfine pattern which is observed is seen to be a consequence of metal coordination to three nitrogens. Expand
X-Ray Diffraction and Protein Structure
Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on X-ray diffraction and protein structure. X-ray diffraction is now more than 30 years old. Enough X-ray studies of proteins have been made to result in anExpand
Insulin: The Structure in the Crystal and its Reflection in Chemistry and Biology by
Publisher Summary This chapter reviews the physical, chemical, and biological properties of insulin in the light of the atomic arrangement found in insulin crystals. It also describes the relation ofExpand
Insulin crystallization in the presence of basic proteins and peptides.
Abstract The range of conditions under which tetragonal P41212 insulin-salmine crystals can be grown has been studied extensively and the required minimal salmine/insulin ratio established. CrystalsExpand
The problem of the internal structure of the protein molecule is one on which very little real progress has been made since the fundamental researches of Fischer. His work showed that proteins wereExpand
The structure of 2Zn pig insulin crystals at 1.5 A resolution.
  • E. Baker, T. Blundell, +7 authors C. Reynolds
  • Chemistry, Biology
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1988
The paper describes the arrangement of the atoms within rhombohedral crystals of 2Zn pig insulin as seen in electron density maps calculated from X-ray data extending to 1.5 A at room temperature and refined to R = 0.153, finding all but eight of the active atoms in the protein form at least one hydrogen bond. Expand
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Single Crystals of Cupric Insulin
The application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to the binding of divalent metal ions to insulin is described and the richness of the data obtainable from orientation investigations of single crystals is emphasized. Expand


X-Ray Photographs of Crystalline Pepsin
FOUR weeks ago, Dr. G. Millikan brought us some crystals of pepsin prepared by Dr. Philpot in the laboratory of Prof. The Svedberg, Uppsala. They are in the form of perfect hexagonal bipyramids up toExpand
Crystalline Insulin.
  • J. J. Abel
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1926
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FROM the recent papers by Mr. P. S. H. Henry1 and others, it appears that interest is being taken in the phenomena which occur in a sounding tube. It may be well to direct attention to some results IExpand