X-Ray Single Crystal Photographs of Insulin

@article{Crowfoot1935XRaySC,
  title={X-Ray Single Crystal Photographs of Insulin},
  author={Dorothy Crowfoot},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1935},
  volume={135},
  pages={591-592}
}
SINCE insulin was first prepared crystalline1 in 1926, several efforts have been made to obtain X-ray photographs of the crystals. The first attempts of W. H. George2 by the powder method failed to show any pattern indicative of a crystal structure, and though later long spacings were reported by G. L. Clark and K. E. Korrigan3, it was impossible to base any unambiguous interpretation on their results. The fact that pepsin could be made to give a single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern4… Expand
The Two Crystalline Modifications of Insulin
PROF. E. B. MATHEWS' first examination of Abel's crystalline insulin showed the presence of two types of insulin crystals1. One of these, the so-called prismatic or needle variety, had markedExpand
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  • D. Hodgkin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1979
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A brief account of the history and prehistory of protein crystallography that determined the authors' thinking in the thirties and forties is proposed. Expand
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The binding of transition metal ions in insulin crystals.
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X-ray diffraction data are presented which suggest that cupric insulin crystals are isomorphous with the much studied zinc ones, and the two-nitrogen hyperfine pattern which is observed is seen to be a consequence of metal coordination to three nitrogens. Expand
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Abstract The range of conditions under which tetragonal P41212 insulin-salmine crystals can be grown has been studied extensively and the required minimal salmine/insulin ratio established. CrystalsExpand
EVIDENCE FROM X‐RAYS REGARDING THE STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN MOLECULES
The problem of the internal structure of the protein molecule is one on which very little real progress has been made since the fundamental researches of Fischer. His work showed that proteins wereExpand
The structure of 2Zn pig insulin crystals at 1.5 A resolution.
  • E. Baker, T. Blundell, +7 authors C. Reynolds
  • Chemistry, Biology
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1988
TLDR
The paper describes the arrangement of the atoms within rhombohedral crystals of 2Zn pig insulin as seen in electron density maps calculated from X-ray data extending to 1.5 A at room temperature and refined to R = 0.153, finding all but eight of the active atoms in the protein form at least one hydrogen bond. Expand
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Single Crystals of Cupric Insulin
TLDR
The application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to the binding of divalent metal ions to insulin is described and the richness of the data obtainable from orientation investigations of single crystals is emphasized. Expand
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FOUR weeks ago, Dr. G. Millikan brought us some crystals of pepsin prepared by Dr. Philpot in the laboratory of Prof. The Svedberg, Uppsala. They are in the form of perfect hexagonal bipyramids up toExpand
Crystalline Insulin.
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  • Chemistry, Medicine
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The conclusions of this paper remain substantially unchanged and can be applied equally as well to the reaction between ozone and carbon monoxide, if this reaction be thought responsible for the luminescence. Expand
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