X-Ray Single Crystal Photographs of Insulin

  title={X-Ray Single Crystal Photographs of Insulin},
  author={Dorothy Crowfoot},
  • D. Crowfoot
  • Published 13 April 1935
  • Materials Science
  • Nature
SINCE insulin was first prepared crystalline1 in 1926, several efforts have been made to obtain X-ray photographs of the crystals. The first attempts of W. H. George2 by the powder method failed to show any pattern indicative of a crystal structure, and though later long spacings were reported by G. L. Clark and K. E. Korrigan3, it was impossible to base any unambiguous interpretation on their results. The fact that pepsin could be made to give a single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern4… 

The Two Crystalline Modifications of Insulin

PROF. E. B. MATHEWS' first examination of Abel's crystalline insulin showed the presence of two types of insulin crystals1. One of these, the so-called prismatic or needle variety, had marked

Crystallographic Measurements and the Structure of Protein Molecules as They Are

  • D. Hodgkin
  • Chemistry
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1979
A brief account of the history and prehistory of protein crystallography that determined the authors' thinking in the thirties and forties is proposed.

X-ray analysis and the structure of insulin.

The binding of transition metal ions in insulin crystals.


The problem of the internal structure of the protein molecule is one on which very little real progress has been made since the fundamental researches of Fischer. His work showed that proteins were

The structure of 2Zn pig insulin crystals at 1.5 A resolution.

The paper describes the arrangement of the atoms within rhombohedral crystals of 2Zn pig insulin as seen in electron density maps calculated from X-ray data extending to 1.5 A at room temperature and refined to R = 0.153, finding all but eight of the active atoms in the protein form at least one hydrogen bond.

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Single Crystals of Cupric Insulin

The application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to the binding of divalent metal ions to insulin is described and the richness of the data obtainable from orientation investigations of single crystals is emphasized.



X-Ray Photographs of Crystalline Pepsin

FOUR weeks ago, Dr. G. Millikan brought us some crystals of pepsin prepared by Dr. Philpot in the laboratory of Prof. The Svedberg, Uppsala. They are in the form of perfect hexagonal bipyramids up to

Crystalline Insulin.

  • J. J. Abel
  • Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1926
The conclusions of this paper remain substantially unchanged and can be applied equally as well to the reaction between ozone and carbon monoxide, if this reaction be thought responsible for the luminescence.

Phenomena in a Sounding Tube.

FROM the recent papers by Mr. P. S. H. Henry1 and others, it appears that interest is being taken in the phenomena which occur in a sounding tube. It may be well to direct attention to some results I