Written emotional expression: effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables.

@article{Smyth1998WrittenEE,
  title={Written emotional expression: effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables.},
  author={Joshua M. Smyth},
  journal={Journal of consulting and clinical psychology},
  year={1998},
  volume={66 1},
  pages={
          174-84
        }
}
  • J. Smyth
  • Published 1998
  • Medicine
  • Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
A research synthesis was conducted to examine the relationship between a written emotional expression task and subsequent health. This writing task was found to lead to significantly improved health outcomes in healthy participants. Health was enhanced in 4 outcome types--reported physical health, psychological well-being, physiological functioning, and general functioning--but health behaviors were not influenced. Writing also increased immediate (pre- to postwriting) distress, which was… Expand

Paper Mentions

Cognitive-Behavioral Models of Emotional Writing: A Validation Study
Previous research suggests that the Pennebaker writing paradigm may improve physical and psychological health; however, inconsistent findings suggest that it may not be suitable for communityExpand
Effects of an Emotional Disclosure Writing Task on the Physical and Psychological Functioning of Children of Alcoholics
Abstract This study investigated the effects of an emotional disclosure writing task on the physical and psychological functioning of pre-teen and adolescent children of alcoholics (N = 53).Expand
Effects of written emotional expression: the role of positive expectancies.
  • T. Langens, J. Schüler
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 2007
TLDR
There may be 2 alternative ways to render written emotional expression effective in reducing negative emotions: (a) by rendering an emotional experience more meaningful and (b) by inducing positive affect regulation expectancies. Expand
The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Expressive Writing Intervention
Expressive Writing (EW) involves asking participants to write emotionally about stressful life events and has been associated with improvements in psychological and physical health. The purpose ofExpand
Emotional and physical health benefits of expressive writing
Writing about traumatic, stressful or emotional events has been found to result in improvements in both physical and psychological health, in non-clinical and clinical populations. In the expressiveExpand
How benefits of expressive writing vary as a function of writing instructions, ethnicity and ambivalence over emotional expression
TLDR
Mixed linear models revealed that COG writing reduced physical symptoms, ED buffered a decrease in PA over time, and the combination of ED and COG was most effective, and Asians and highly ambivalent participants benefited most from expressive writing. Expand
Cognitive-behavioural emotion writing tasks: a controlled trial of multiple processes.
  • A. Guastella, M. Dadds
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry
  • 2008
TLDR
The use of three structured writing paradigms that engage the writer with cognitive-behavioural emotion-processes: exposure, devaluation, and benefit-finding are suggested to study emotion-processing mechanisms and to enhance coping in process-specific ways. Expand
Health Effects of Expressive Letter Writing.
Abstract This study is the first to experimentally examine the potential health benefits of expressive letter writing. College students (N= 108) were randomly assigned to one of three letter–writingExpand
Cognitive Adaptability as a Moderator of Expressive Writing Effects in an HIV Sample
TLDR
B baseline levels of cognitive adaptability were differentially associated with changes in a positive outcomes index, and a pain and physical functioning index in those assigned to the two groups, highlighting the importance of identification of moderating variables in understanding the impact of expressive writing interventions among individuals with HIV or other conditions. Expand
Mindfulness as a moderator in expressive writing.
TLDR
Individuals with higher mindfulness scores responded better to expressive writing, experiencing greater physical and psychological benefits than individuals with lower mindfulness scores. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 98 REFERENCES
Putting stress into words: health, linguistic, and therapeutic implications.
  • J. Pennebaker
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Behaviour research and therapy
  • 1993
TLDR
Independent of verbal emotion expression, the increasing use of insight, causal, and associated cognitive words over several days of writing is linked to health improvement and the construction of a coherent story together with the expression of negative emotions work together in therapeutic writing. Expand
Cognitive, Emotional, and Language Processes in Disclosure
Previous studies have found that writing about upsetting experiences can improve physical health. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, 72 first-year college students were randomly assigned toExpand
Cognitive and emotional changes in written essays and therapy interviews.
The purpose of this study was to examine the cathartic and therapeutic effects of written essays and therapy interviews about traumatic events over four successive days as compared with a controlExpand
Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement.
TLDR
The words people use in disclosing a trauma were hypothesized to predict improvements in mental and physical health in 2 studies and Cognitive change and empirical models predicted postbereavement distress at 1 year are discussed. Expand
Emotional Expression in Written Essays and Psychotherapy
In an effort to understand emotional change, brief psychotherapy was compared with written expression about stressful life events as well as with a control condition of writing about trivial eventsExpand
Putting Stress into Words: The Impact of Writing on Physiological, Absentee, and Self-Reported Emotional Well-Being Measures
TLDR
A unique approach to aid individuals in dealing with psychological and emotional issues that they must often face and the proposed writing strategy offers a unique tool for health promotion practitioners is described. Expand
Emotional processing in vocal and written expression of feelings about traumatic experiences
The purpose of this study was to compare vocal and written expression of feeling about interpersonal traumatic and trivial events in 20-min sessions over a 4-day period. Similar emotional processingExpand
Effects of psychosocial interventions with adult cancer patients: a meta-analysis of randomized experiments.
  • T. J. Meyer, M. Mark
  • Medicine
  • Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 1995
TLDR
Effect sizes for treatment-control comparisons did not significantly differ among several categories of treatment: behavioral interventions, nonbehavioral counseling and therapy, informational and educational methods, organized social support provided by other patients, and other nonhospice interventions. Expand
Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy.
TLDR
Two measures of cellular immune-system function and health center visits suggested that confronting traumatic experiences was physically beneficial and the implications for psychotherapy as a preventive treatment for health problems are discussed. Expand
Accelerating the coping process.
TLDR
No effects emerged as a function of when people wrote, suggesting that the coping process can be accelerated and for comparing insight treatments with catharsis, and for distinguishing between objective and self-report indicators of distress. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...