Writing as a Mode of Learning.

  title={Writing as a Mode of Learning.},
  author={Janet A. Emig},
  journal={College Composition and Communication},
  • J. Emig
  • Published 1 May 1977
  • Education
  • College Composition and Communication
WRITING represents a unique mode of learning-not merely valuable, not merely special, but unique. That will be my contention in this paper. The thesis is straightforward. Writing serves learning uniquely because writing as process-andproduct possesses a cluster of attributes that correspond uniquely to certain powerful learning strategies. Although the notion is clearly debatable, it is scarcely a private belief. Some of the most distinguished contemporary psychologists have at least implied… 
Learning and Acquisition: Two Paths to Writing.
Each semester, as teachers of composition, we are faced with students whose production of the written language is extremely inadequate for most communicative purposes. Yet there are always some
Becoming Aware of the Myth of Presence
It has been a fundamental axiom of writing instruction for generations that good writing is like speech inasmuch as it has "voice" and is aware of its audience. And this comparison seems to make
The Promise of Writing to Learn
This essay situates the phenomenon of writing and learning in historical, pedagogical, and theoretical frameworks to isolate write-to-learn methods derived from the “British model” of language and
Understanding the Cognitive Processes Involved in Writing to Learn
The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy.
Writing and Reasoning
What contribution, if any, does written language make to intellectual development? Why, if at all, should we be concerned with the role of writing in our culture in general, and in our schools in
Language and Learning Across the Disciplines
The use of writing as a means of assisting students to learn and of assessing their understanding in an introductory science course intended primarily as a terminal course for non-science majors is
The Process of Writing and the Process of Learning.
This paper is prompted, in part, by a specific situation that exists at the school where I teach. Out of the general clamor about the "writing crisis," there has arisen at my school a strong feeling
Reading to Learn Mathematics: New Connections, New Questions, New Challenges.
Mathematics is one area of the curriculum where, traditionally, little reading and writing occur the few exceptions being some rare consultations of the textbook, the very specialized reading
Individual Differences in Composing: Exploring Consequences for Learning through Writing.
Noting that the claim that writing is a way to learn underlies most writing across the curriculum programs, this paper provides an overview of recent research results supporting the claim and
Reopening Inquiry into Cognitive Processes in Writing-To-Learn
Writing produces generally positive, but inconsistent, effects on learning. The reasons for this inconsistency are unknown. This review examines four hypotheses about writing-to-learn: Writers


A theory of personality : the psychology of personal constructs
This original theory of personality is based on the concept that there are many workable ways by which individuals can construct their world. George Kelly's starting point and basic premise is that
Vygotsky, Thought and Language, trans
  • Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press,
  • 1962
From Information to Understanding (London: Schools Council Project Writing
  • Across the Curriculum,
  • 1973
After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation
The shattered mind: The person after brain damage
Perhaps Test Essays Can Reflect Significant Improvement in Freshman Composition: Report on a Successful Attempt.
much research in written composition has failed to prove what most teachers of composition sense is the case: that instruction leads to improvement in writing. The problem with much of the research
Toward a Post-Critical Philosophy Chicago: 20. Jean-Paul Sartre
  • p. viii. Interview," with Michel Contat
  • 1958
Language Ability Found in Right Side of Brain,
  • New York Times,
  • 1975
98 . 4 . Dell Hymes , “ On the Origins and Foundations of Inequality Among Speakers
  • After Babel : Aspects of Language and Translation
  • 1975
Experience and Education (New York: Macmillan, 1938); Jean Piaget, Biology and Knowledge: An Essay on the Relations between Organic Regulations and Cognitive Processes
  • 1971