Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

  title={Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults},
  author={Leandra Ziad A Zargar Abdul Niveen M Benjamin Cecilia Robe Abarca-G{\'o}mez Abdeen Hamid Abu-Rmeileh Acosta-Cazar and Leandra Abarca-G{\'o}mez and Ziad Abdeen and Zargar Abdul Hamid and Niveen M. E. Abu-Rmeileh and Benjam{\'i}n Acosta-C{\'a}zares and Cecilia Cristina Acuin and Robert John Adams and Wichai Aekplakorn and Kaosar Afsana and Carlos Alberto Aguilar-Salinas and Charles Agyemang and Alireza Ahmadvand and Wolfgang Ahrens and Kamel M. Ajlouni and Nazgul S. Akhtaeva and Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa and Amani Rashed Al-Othman and Rajaa Al-Raddadi and Fadia Al Buhairan and Shahla Al Dhukair and Mohamed M. Ali and Osman Ali and Ala’a Alkerwi and Mar {\'A}lvarez-Pedrerol and Eman Aly and Deepak Narayan Amarapurkar and Philippe Amouyel and Antoinette Amuzu and Lars Bo Andersen and Sigmund Alfred Anderssen and Dolores S. Andrade and Lars {\"A}ngquist and Ranjit Mohan Anjana and Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri and Joana Ara{\'u}jo and Inger Ariansen and Tahir Aris and Nimmathota Arlappa and Dominique Arveiler and Krishna K. Aryal and Thor Aspelund and Felix Assah and Maria Cec{\'i}lia Formoso Assunç{\~a}o and May Soe Aung and M{\'a}ria Avdi{\vc}ov{\'a} and Ana Azevedo and Fereidoun Azizi and Bontha Veerraju Babu and Suhad M. Bahijri and Jennifer L Baker and Nagalla Balakrishna and M. Bamoshmoosh and Maciej Banach and Piotr Bandosz and Jos{\'e} R. Banegas and Carlo Maria Barbagallo and Alberto Barcelo and Amina Barkat and Aluisio J. D. Barros and Mauro V G Barros and Iqbal R Bata and Anwar Batieha and Rosangela Fernandes Lucena Batista and Assembekov Batyrbek and Louise A. Baur and Robert Beaglehole and Habiba Ben Romdhane and Judith Benedics and Mikhail Benet and James E Bennett and Antonio Bernab{\'e}-Ortiz and Gailute Bernotiene and Helo{\'i}sa Bettiol and Aroor Bhagyalaxmi and Sumit Bharadwaj and Santosh Kumar Bhargava and Zaid Bhatti and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta and Hongsheng Bi and Yufang Bi and Anna Biehl and Mukharram M. Bikbov and Bihungum Bista and Dusko J Bjelica and Peter Bjerregaard and Espen Bjertness and Marius Bergsmark Bjertness and Cecilia Bj{\"o}rkelund and Anneke Blokstra and Simona Bo and Martin Bob{\'a}k and Lynne M. Boddy and Bernhard O. Boehm and Heiner Boeing and Jos{\'e} Boggia and Carlos Pablo Boissonnet and Marialaura Bonaccio and Vanina Bongard and Pascal Bovet and Lien Braeckevelt and Lutgart Braeckman and Marjolijn C. E. Bragt and Imperia E. Brajkovich and Francesco Branca and Juergen Breckenkamp and Joao J Breda and Hermann Brenner and Lizzy Maritza Brewster and Garry Brian and Lacramioara Aurelia Brinduse and Graziella Bruno and H. B(as). Bueno‐de‐Mesquita and Anna Bugge and Marta Buoncristiano and Genc Burazeri and Con Burns and Antonio Cabrera de Le{\'o}n and Joseph M. Cacciottolo and Hui Cai and Tilema Cama and Christine Cameron and Jos{\'e} Camolas and G{\"u}nay Can and Ana Paula Carlos C{\^a}ndido and Mario V. Capanzana and Vincenzo Capuano and Viviane Cunha Cardoso and Axel C. Carlsson and Maria J. Carvalho and Felipe F. Casanueva and Juan Pablo Casas and Carmelo Antonio Caserta and Snehalatha Chamukuttan and Angelique Wei-Ming Chan and Queenie Chan and Himanshu Kumar Chaturvedi and Nish Chaturvedi and Chien-Jen Chen and Fangfang Chen and Huashuai Chen and Shuohua Chen and Zhengming Chen and Ching-Yu Cheng and Angela Chetrit and Ekaterina Chikova-Iscener and Arnaud Chiolero and Shu-Ti Chiou and Adela Chiriță-Emandi and Maria D. Chirlaque and Belong Cho and Yumi Cho and Kaare Christensen and Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro and Jerzy Chudek and Renata C{\'i}fkov{\'a} and Eliza Cinteză and Frank Claessens and E. Clays and Hans Concin and Susana Cararo Confortin and Cyrus Cooper and Rachel Cooper and Tara Coppinger and Simona Costanzo and Dominique Cottel and Christopher T. Cowell and Cora Lynn Craig and Ana B. Crujeiras and Alexandra Cucu and Graziella D’Arrigo and Eleonora d’Orsi and Jean Dallongeville and Albertino Damasceno and Camilla Trab Damsgaard and Goodarz Danaei and Rachel Dankner and Thomas Meinertz Dantoft and Saeed Dastgiri and Luc Dauchet and Kairat Davletov and Guy G. De Backer and Dirk De Bacquer and Amalia De Curtis and Giovanni de Gaetano and Stefaan De Henauw and Paula Duarte de Oliveira and Karin De Ridder and Delphine De Smedt and Mohan Deepa and A. D. Deev and Abbas Dehghan and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne F. Delisle and Francis Delpeuch and Val{\'e}rie Deschamps and Klodian Dhana and Augusto Di Castelnuovo and Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa and Alejandro D{\'i}az and Živka Dika and Shirin Djalalinia and Ha T. P. Do and Annette J Dobson and Maria Benedetta Donati and Chiara Donfrancesco and Silvana P. Donoso and Angela D{\"o}ring and Maria Dorobanțu and Ahmad Reza Dorosty and Kouamelan Doua and Wojciech Drygas and Jia-li Duan and Charmaine A. Duante and Vesselka Duleva and Virginija Dulskienė and Vilnis Dzērve and Elżbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk and Eruke Elizabeth Egbagbe and Robert Eggertsen and Gabriele Eiben and Ulf Ekelund and Jalila El Ati and Paul Elliott and Reina Engle-Stone and Rajiv T. Erasmus and Cihangir Erem and Louise Eriksen and Johan Gunnar Eriksson and Jorge Escobedo-de la Pe{\~n}a and Alun E. Evans and David Faeh and Caroline H Fall and Victoria Farrugia Sant’Angelo and Farshad Farzadfar and Francisco Javier F{\'e}lix-Redondo and Trevor S. Ferguson and R{\^o}mulo A. Fernandes and Daniel Fern{\'a}ndez-Berg{\'e}s and Daniela Ferrante and Marika Ferrari and Catterina Ferreccio and Jean Ferri{\`e}res and Joseph D. Finn and Krista Fischer and Eric Monterubio Flores and Bernhard F{\"o}ger and Leng Huat Foo and Ann-Sofie Forslund and Maria Forsner and Heba M Fouad and Damian K. Francis and Maria do Carmo Franco and Oscar H. Franco and Guillermo Frontera and Fl{\'a}vio Danni Fuchs and Sandra Costa Fuchs and Yuki Fujita and Takuro Furusawa and Zbigniew Gaciong and Mihai Gafencu and Daniela Galeone and Fabio Galvano and Manoli Garc{\'i}a-de-la-Hera and Dickman Gareta and Sarah P. Garnett and Jean-Michel Gaspoz and Magda Gasull and Louise Gates and Harald Geiger and Johanna Marianna Geleijnse and Anoosheh Ghasemian and Simona Giampaoli and Francesco Gianfagna and Tiffany K. Gill and Jonathan Giovannelli and Aleksander Giwercman and Justyna Godos and Sibel Gogen and Rebecca A Goldsmith and David Goltzman and Helen Gonçalves and Margot Gonz{\'a}lez-Le{\'o}n and Juan P. Gonz{\'a}lez-Rivas and Marcela Gonz{\'a}lez-Gross and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Gottrand and Ant{\'o}nio Pedro Soares Ricardo Graça and Sidsel Graff-Iversen and Du{\vs}an Grafnetter and A Grajda and Maria G. Grammatikopoulou and Ronald D. Gregor and Tomasz Grodzicki and Anders Gr{\o}ntved and Giuseppe Grosso and Gabriella Gruden and Vera Gruji{\'c} and Dongfeng Gu and Emanuela Gualdi-Russo and Pilar Guallar-Castill{\'o}n and Ong Peng Guan and Elias Freyr Gudmundsson and Vilmundur G. Gudnason and Ramiro Guerrero and Idris Guessous and Andr{\'e} Luiz Sena Guimar{\~a}es and Martin C. Gulliford and Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir and Marc J. Gunter and Xiuhua Guo and Yin Guo and Prakash C. Gupta and Rajeev Kumar Gupta and Oye Gureje and Beata Gurzkowska and Laura Gutierrez and F{\'e}lix Gutzwiller and Farzad Hadaegh and Charalambos A Hadjigeorgiou and Khairil Azhar Si-Ramlee and Jytte Halkj{\ae}r and Ian Hambleton and Rebecca Hardy and Rachakulla Hari Kumar and Maria Hassapidou and Jun Hata and Anthony Joseph Hayes and Jiang He and Regina Heidinger-Felső and Mirjam M Heinen and Marleen Elisabeth Hendriks and Ana Henriques and Leticia Hern{\'a}ndez Cadena and Sauli Herrala and V{\'i}ctor Mauricio Herrera and Isabelle Herter-Aeberli and Ramin Heshmat and Ilpo Tapani Hihtaniemi and Sai Yin Ho and Suzanne C. Ho and Michael Hobbs and Albert Hofman and Wilma M. Hopman and Andr{\'e}a Rvr Horimoto and Claudia M. Hormiga and Bernardo Lessa Horta and Le{\"i}la Houti and Christine Howitt and Thein Thein Htay and Aung Soe Htet and Maung Maung Than Htike and Yonghua Hu and Jos{\'e} Mar{\'i}a Huerta and Constanta Huidumac Petrescu and Martijn Huisman and Abdullatif Husseini and Chinh Nguyen Huu and Inge Huybrechts and Nahla C Hwalla and Jolanda Hyska and Licia Iacoviello and A Iannone and Jes{\'u}s M Ibarluzea and Mohsen M. Ibrahim and Nayu Ikeda and M. Arfan Ikram and Vilma Edith Irazola and Muhammad Islam and Aziz al-Safi Ismail and Vanja Ivkovi{\'c} and Masanori Iwasaki and Rod Jackson and Jeremy M. Jacobs and Hashem Y. Jaddou and Tazeen Hasan Jafar and Kazi Mohammad Asif Jamil and Konrad D. Jamrozik and Imre Janszky and Juel Jarani and Grazyna Jasienska and Ana Jelakovi{\'c} and Bojan Jelakovi{\'c} and Garry Jennings and Seung-lyeal Jeong and Chao Qiang Jiang and Santa Magaly Jim{\'e}nez-Acosta and Michel R. Joffres and Mattias Johansson and Jost B. Jonas and Torben J{\o}rgensen and Pradeep Joshi and Dragana Jovic and Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak and Anne Juolevi and Gregor Jurak and Vesna Jure{\vs}a and Rudolf Kaaks and Anthony G. Kafatos and Eero Kajantie and Ofra Kalter‐Leibovici and Nor Azmi Kamaruddin and Efthymios Kapantais and Khem B Karki and Amir Kasaeian and Joanne Katz and Jussi Kauhanen and Prabhdeep Kaur and Maryam Kavousi and Gyulli M. Kazakbaeva and Ulrich Keil and Lital Keinan Boker and Sirkka Kein{\"a}nen-Kiukaanniemi and Roya Kelishadi and Cecily C Kelleher and Han C G Kemper and Andre P Kengne and Alina S. Kerimkulova and Mathilde Kersting and Timothy J. Key and Yousef S. Khader and Davood Khalili and Young Ho Khang and Mohammad Khateeb and Kay-Tee Khaw and Ilse MSL Khouw and Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer and Stefan Kiechl and Japhet Killewo and Jeongseon Kim and Yeon-Yong Kim and Jeannette Klimont and Jūratė Klumbienė and Michael Knoflach and Bhawesh Koirala and Elin Kolle and Patrick Kolsteren and P Korrovits and Jelena Kos and Seppo V P Koskinen and Katsuyasu Kouda and Viktoria A. Kovacs and Sudhir Kowlessur and Sławomir M Kozieł and Wolfgang Kratzer and Susi Kriemler and Peter L Kristensen and Steinar Krokstad and Daan Kromhout and Herculina Salome Kruger and Rů{\vz}ena Kub{\'i}nov{\'a} and Renata Kuciene and Diana Kuh and Urho M. Kujala and Zbigniew Kułaga and R. Krishna Kumar and Marie Kunesova and Paweł Kurjata and Yadlapalli S Kusuma and Kari Kuulasmaa and Catherine Kyobutungi and Quang Ngoc La and Fatima Zahra Laamiri and Tiina Laatikainen and Carl K Lachat and Youcef Laid and Tai Hing Lam and Orlando Landrove and Věra L{\'a}nsk{\'a} and Georg Lappas and Bagher Larijani and Lars Erik Laugsand and Laura Lauria and Avula Laxmaiah and Khanh Le Nguyen Bao and Tuyen Danh Le and May Antonnette O. Lebanan and Catherine Leclercq and Jeannette Lee and Jeonghee Lee and Terho Lehtim{\"a}ki and Luz Ma Le{\'o}n-Mu{\~n}oz and Naomi S. Levitt and Yanping Li and Christa L. Lilly and Wei Yen Lim and Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa and Hsien-Ho Lin and Xu Lin and Lars Lind and Allan Linneberg and Lauren Lissner and Mieczysław Litwin and Jing Liu and Helle-mai Loit and Lu{\'i}s Lopes and Roberto Lorbeer and Paulo Andrade Lotufo and Jos{\'e} Eugenio Lozano and Dalia Luk{\vs}ienė and Annamari Lundqvist and Nuno Lunet and Per Lytsy and Guansheng Ma and Jun Ma and George L. L. Machado-Coelho and Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues and Suka Machi and Stefania Maggi and Dianna J. Magliano and Emmanuella Magriplis and Alagappan Mahaletchumy and Bernard Maire and Marjeta Majer and Marcia Makdisse and Reza Malekzadeh and Rahul Malhotra and Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao and Sofia Malyutina and Yannis Manios and Jim I. Mann and Enzo Manzato and Paula Margozzini and Anastasia G. Markaki and Oonagh Markey and Larissa Pruner Marques and Pedro Marques‐Vidal and Jaume Marrugat and Yves Martin-Pr{\'e}vel and Rosemarie Martin and Reynaldo Martorell and {\'E}va Martos and Stefano Marventano and Shariq Rashid Masoodi and Ellisiv B. Mathiesen and Al{\'i}cia Matijasevich and Tandi Edith Matsha and Artur Mazur and Jean Claude Mbanya and Shelly R. McFarlane and Stephen T. Mcgarvey and Martin McKee and Stela McLachlan and Rachael Mira McLean and Scott B. McLean and Breige A. McNulty and Safiah Md. Yusof and Sounnia M{\'e}di{\`e}ne-Benchekor and Jurate Medzioniene and Aline Meirhaeghe and J{\o}rgen Meisfjord and Christa Meisinger and Ana M B Menezes and Geetha R Menon and Gert B. M. Mensink and Indrapal Meshram and Andres Metspalu and Haakon E. Meyer and Jie Mi and KimFleischer Michaelsen and Nathalie Michels and Kairit Mikkel and Jody C Miller and Cl{\'a}udia Minderico and Juan Francisco Miquel and J. Jaime Miranda and Daphne Mirkopoulou and Erkin M. Mirrakhimov and Marjeta Misigoj-Durakovic and Antonio Mistretta and Veronica Mocanu and Pietro Amedeo Modesti and Mostafa Kamal Mohamed and Kazem Mohammad and Noushin Mohammadifard and Viswanathan Mohan and Salim Mohanna and Muhammad Fadhli Yusoff and Drude Molbo and Line Tang M{\o}llehave and Niels Chr M{\o}ller and D{\'e}nes Moln{\'a}r and Amir Abbas Momenan and Charles Kiiza Mondo and Eric A. Monterrubio and Kotsedi Daniel K Monyeki and Jin Soo Moon and Leila Beltrami Moreira and Alain Morej{\'o}n and Luis Alberto Moreno and Karen Morgan and Erik Lykke Mortensen and G. Moschonis and Małgorzata Mossakowska and Aya Mostafa and Jorge Mota and Anabela Mota-Pinto and Mohammad esmaeel Motlagh and Jorge Motta and Thet Thet Mu and Magdalena Muc and Maria Lorenza Muiesan and Martina M{\"u}ller-Nurasyid and Neil Murphy and Jaakko Mursu and Elaine M. Murtagh and Vera Musil and Iraj Nabipour and Gabriele Nagel and Balkish Mahadir Naidu and Harunobu Nakamura and Jana N{\'a}me{\vs}n{\'a} and Ei Ei Khaing Nang and Vinay Nangia and Martin Nankap and Sameer S. Narake and Paola Nardone and Eva Mar{\'i}a Navarrete-Mu{\~n}oz and William A. Neal and Ilona Nenko and Martin Neovius and Flavio O. Nervi and Chung Thanh Nguyen and Nguyen Do Nguyen and Quang Ngoc Nguyen and Ramfis Nieto-Mart{\'i}nez and Guang Ning and Toshiharu Ninomiya and Sania Nishtar and Marianna Noale and Oscar Noboa and Teresa Norat and Sawada Norie and Davide Noto and Mohannad Al Nsour and Dermot O’Reilly and Galina Obreja and Eiji Oda and Glenn P. Oehlers and Kyungwon Oh and Kumiko Ohara and {\"O}rn {\'O}lafsson and Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto and Isabel Oliveira de Oliveira and Maciej Ołtarzewski and Mohd Azahadi Omar and Altan Onat and Sok King Ong and Lariane Mortean Ono and Pedro Ordunez and Rui T Ornelas and Ana P. Ort{\'i}z and Merete Osler and Clive Osmond and Sergej M. Ostoji{\'c} and Afshin Ostovar and Johanna Otero and Kim Overvad and Ellis Owusu-Dabo and Fred Paccaud and Cristina Padez and E. V. Pahomova and Andrzej Pająk and Domenico Palli and Alberto Palloni and Luigi Palmieri and Wen-Harn Pan and Songhomitra Panda-Jonas and Arvind Pandey and Francesco Panza and Dimitrios Papandreou and Soon Woo Park and Winsome Ruth Parnell and Mahboubeh Parsaeian and Ionela Maria Pascanu and Nikhil D. Patel and Ivan Pe{\'c}in and Mangesh Suryakant Pednekar and Nasheeta Peer and P H M Peeters and S{\'e}rgio William Viana Peixoto and Markku Peltonen and Alexandre C. Pereira and Napole{\'o}n P{\'e}rez-Farin{\'o}s and Cynthia Morales P{\'e}rez and Annette Peters and Janina Petkevi{\vc}ienė and Ausra Petrauskiene and Niloofar Peykari and Son Thai Pham and Daniela Pierannunzio and Iris Pigeot and Hynek Pikhart and Aida Pilav and Lorenza Pilotto and Francesco Pistelli and Freda Pitakaka and Aleksandra Piwońska and Pedro Plans-Rubi{\'o} and Bee Koon Poh and Hermann Pohlabeln and Raluca-Monica Pop and Stevo Popovi{\'c} and Miquel Porta and Marileen L. P. Portegies and Georg Posch and Dimitrios Poulimeneas and Hamed Pouraram and Akram Pourshams and Hossein Poustchi and Rajendra Pradeepa and Mathur Prashant and Jacqueline F. Price and Jardena J Puder and Iveta Pudule and Maria Gabriela Puiu and Margus Punab and Radwan Qasrawi and Mostafa Qorbani and Tran Quoc Bao and Ivana Radi{\'c} and Ri{\vc}ardas Radi{\vs}auskas and Mahfuzar Rahman and Mahmudur Rahman and Olli T. Raitakari and Manu Raj and Sudha Ramachandra Rao and Ambady Ramachandran and Jacqueline Ramke and Elisabete Ramos and Rafel Ramos and Lekhraj Rampal and Sanjay Rampal and Ram{\'o}n Alberto Rasc{\'o}n-Pacheco and Josep Red{\'o}n and Paul Ferdinand M. Reganit and Lourdes Ribas-Barba and Robespierre Ribeiro and Elio Riboli and Fernando Rigo and Tobias F. Rinke de Wit and Ana Isabel Rito and Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias and Juan A. Rivera and Sian M Robinson and Cynthia Robitaille and Daniela Rodrigues and Fernando Rodr{\'i}guez‐Artalejo and Mar{\'i}a del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez and Laura Andrea Rodr{\'i}guez-Villamizar and Rosalba Rojas-Mart{\'i}nez and Nipa Rojroongwasinkul and Dora Romaguera and Kimmo Ronkainen and Annika Rosengren and Ian Rouse and Joel G. R. Roy and Adolfo Luis Rubinstein and Frank J. R{\"u}hli and Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt and Paola Russo and M. Rutkowski and Charumathi Sabanayagam and Harshpal Singh Sachdev and Olfa Saidi and Beno{\^i}t Salanave and Eduardo Salazar Martinez and Diego Salmer{\'o}n and Veikko V Salomaa and Jukka T. Salonen and Massimo Salvetti and Jos{\'e} S{\'a}nchez-Abanto and Sandjaja and Susana Sans and Loreto Santa Marina and Diana A. Santos and In{\'a} Silva Dos Santos and Osvaldo Santos and Renata Nunes dos Santos and Rute Santos and Jouko Saramies and Lu{\'i}s Bettencourt Sardinha and Nizal Sarrafzadegan and Kai Uwe Saum and Savvas C. Savva and Mathilde Savy and Marcia Scazufca and Angelika Schaffrath Rosario and Herman Schargrodsky and Anja Schienkiewitz and Sabine Schipf and Carsten Oliver Schmidt and Ida Maria Schmidt and Constance Schultsz and Aletta Elisabeth Schutte and Aye Aye Sein and Abhijit Sen and Idowu O. Senbanjo and Sadaf G. Sepanlou and Lu{\'i}s Serra-Majem and Svetlana A. Shalnova and Sanjib K. Sharma and Jonathan E. Shaw and Kenjiro Shibuya and Dong Wook Shin and Youchan Shin and Rahman Shiri and Alfonso Siani and Rosalynn Grace Siantar and Abla M. Sibai and Antonio M Silva and Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Mary Simon and Judith Simons and Leon A. Simons and Agneta Sj{\"o}berg and Michael Sj{\"o}str{\"o}m and Sine Skovbjerg and Jolanta Słowikowska-Hilczer and Przemysław Ślusarczyk and Liam Smeeth and Margaret Smith and Marieke B Snijder and Hung Kwan So and Eug{\`e}ne Sobngwi and Stefan S{\"o}derberg and Moesijanti Y. E. Soekatri and Vincenzo Solfrizzi and Emily Sonestedt and Yi Song and Thorkild I. A. S{\o}rensen and Maroje Sori{\'c} and Charles Sossa J{\'e}r{\^o}me and Aicha Soumar{\'e} and Angela Spinelli and Igor M. Spiroski and Jan A. Staessen and Hanspeter Stamm and Gregor Starc and Maria Stathopoulou and Kaspar Staub and Bill Stavreski and Jostein Steene-Johannessen and Peter Stehle and Aryeh D. Stein and George S. Stergiou and Jochanan Stessman and Jutta Stieber and Doris St{\"o}ckl and Tanja Stocks and Jakub Stokwiszewski and Gareth Stratton and Karien Stronks and Maria Wany Louzada Strufaldi and Ram{\'o}n Su{\'a}rez-Medina and Chien‐An Sun and Johan Sundstr{\"o}m and Y T Sung and Jordi Sunyer and Paibul Suriyawongpaisal and Boyd Swinburn and Rody G. Sy and Lucjan Szponar and E-Shyong Tai and Mari-Liis Tammesoo and Abdonas Tamosiunas and Eng Joo Tan and Xun Tang and Frank C Tanser and Yong Tao and Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh and Jakob Tarp and Carolina B. Tarqui-Mamani and Oana Florentina T{\~a}utu and Radka Taxov{\'a} Braunerov{\'a} and Anne Taylor and F{\'e}licit{\'e} Tchibindat and Holger Theobald and Xenophon Theodoridis and Lutgarde Thijs and Betina Heinsb{\ae}k Thuesen and Anne Tj{\o}nneland and Hanna Tolonen and Janne Schurmann Tolstrup and Murat Topbaş and R Topor-Madry and Maria-Jose Tormo and Michael J. Tornaritis and Maties Torrent and Stefania Toselli and Pierre Traissac and Dimitrios Trichopoulos and Antonia Trichopoulou and Oanh T. H. Trinh and Atul V. Trivedi and Lechaba Tshepo and Maria Tsigga and Shoichiro Tsugane and Marshall K. Tulloch-Reid and Fikru Tullu and Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen and Jaakko Tuomilehto and Maria L. Turley and Per Tynelius and Themistoklis Tzotzas and Christophe Tzourio and Peter Ueda and Eunice E. Ugel and Flora AM Ukoli and Hanno Ulmer and Belgin Unal and Hannu Uusitalo and Gonzalo Valdivia and Susana Vale and Damaskini Valvi and Yvonne T. van der Schouw and Koen Van Herck and Hoang Van Minh and Lenie van Rossem and Natasja M. van Schoor and Irene G. M. van Valkengoed and Dirk Vanderschueren and Diego Vanuzzo and Lars Vatten and Tom{\'a}s Vega and Toomas Veidebaum and Gustavo Vel{\'a}squez-Melendez and Biruta Velika and Giovanni Veronesi and W M Monique Verschuren and Cesar Gomes Victora and Giovanni Viegi and Lucie Viet and E. Viikari-Juntura and Paolo Vineis and Jes{\'u}s Vioque and Jyrki K. Virtanen and Sophie Visvikis-Siest and Bharathi Viswanathan and Tiina Vlasoff and Peter Vollenweider and Henry V{\"o}lzke and Sari Voutilainen and Martine Vrijheid and Alisha N. Wade and Aline Wagner and Thomas Waldh{\"o}r and Janette Walton and Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar and Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud and Rildo S. Wanderley and Ming-dong Wang and Qian Wang and Ya Xing Wang and Ying-Wei Wang and S. Goya Wannamethee and Nicholas J. Wareham and Adelheid Weber and Niels Wedderkopp and Deepaka D Weerasekera and Peter H. Whincup and Kurt Widhalm and Indah Suci Widyahening and Andrzej Więcek and Alet H. Wijga and Rainford J. Wilks and Johann Willeit and Peter Willeit and Tom Wilsgaard and Bogdan J Wojtyniak and Roy A. Wong-McClure and Justin Y Y Wong and Jyh Eiin Wong and Tien Yin Wong and Jean Woo and Mark Woodward and Frederick C W Wu and Jianfeng Wu and Shouling Wu and Haiquan Xu and Liang Xu and Uruwan Yamborisut and Weili Yan and Xiaoguang Yang and N Erdal Yardim and Xingwang Ye and Panayiotis K. Yiallouros and Agneta Yngve and Akihiro Yoshihara and Qi Sheng You and Novie Younger-Coleman and Faudzi Ahmad Yusoff and Muhammad Fadhli Yusoff and Luciana Zaccagni and Vassilis Zafiropulos and Ahmad Ali Zainuddin and Sabina Zambon and Antonis Zampelas and Hana Zamrazilov{\'a} and Tomasz Zdrojewski and Yi Zeng and Dong Zhao and Wenhua Zhao and Wei Zheng and Yingfeng Zheng and Bekbolat Zholdin and Maigeng Zhou and Dan Zhu and Baurzhan Zhussupov and Esther Zimmermann and Julio Zu{\~n}iga Cisneros and James Bentham and Mariachiara Di Cesare and Ver Luanni Feliciano Bilano and Honor Bixby and Bin Zhou and Gretchen A. Stevens and Leanne Margaret Riley and Cristina Taddei and Kaveh Hajifathalian and Yuan Lu and Stefan Savin and Melanie J. Cowan and Chris Paciorek and Andr{\'e} Pascal Kengne and Aubrianna Zhu and Majid Ezzati},
  journal={Lancet (London, England)},
  pages={2627 - 2642}
  • Leandra Ziad A Zargar Abdul Niveen M Benjamin Cecilia Robe Abarca-Gómez Abdeen Hamid Abu-Rmeileh Acosta-CazarLeandra Abarca-Gómez M. Ezzati
  • Published 16 December 2017
  • Medicine
  • Lancet (London, England)

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The findings show that WHO overestimates the prevalence of overweight and obesity, while IOTF overrates thinness, and comparing prevalence rates between studies requires caution.

Thinness, overweight, and obesity in 6‐ to 9‐year‐old children from 36 countries: The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative—COSI 2015–2017

The results show great geographic variability in height, weight, and body mass index, and on average, the children of Northern Europe were the tallest, those of Southern Europe the heaviest, and the children living in Central Asia the lightest and the shortest.

Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in underweight and obesity in 5-year-old children, 2011–2018: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study

Inequalities in obesity in schoolchildren in Scotland are large and have widened from 2011, despite only a slight rise in overall prevalence, and extra resources for policy implementation and measures which do not widen inequalities and focus on reaching the most deprived children are required.

Nationwide trends in prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among people with disabilities in South Korea from 2008 to 2017

Simultaneous efforts are needed to develop health policy to reduce both the prevalence of obesity and underweight and the intersection of female, severe disability, and mental/developmental disabilities was associated with probability of severe obesity.

Levels and Trends of BMI, Obesity, and Overweight at National and Sub-national Levels in Iran from 1990 to 2016; A Comprehensive Pooled Analysis of Half a Million Individuals.

Considering the increasing trends of BMI, Sustainable Development Goals seem far out of reach, and action is needed to call for action, aiming for both weight loss strategies and controlling the comorbidities that mediate high BMI risk.



Prevalence of overweight and obesity in European children below the age of 10

There is a higher prevalence of obesity in populations from southern Europe and in population groups with lower education and income levels, which confirm the need to develop and reinforce European public health policies to prevent early obesity and to reduce these health inequalities and regional disparities.

Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012

Examination of trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012 found that the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls.

Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey

The proposed cut off points, which are less arbitrary and more internationally based than current alternatives, should help to provide internationally comparable prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in children.

25-year trends in gender disparity for obesity and overweight by using WHO and IOTF definitions among Chinese school-aged children: a multiple cross-sectional study

The gradually increasing gender disparity in urban and rural areas suggests that the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys, and especially in urban boys, contributes to a large and growing proportion of obese and overweight children.

Evidence of an Overweight/Obesity Transition among School-Aged Children and Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight.

The impact of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review

There was evidence for associations between childhood BMI and type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease, but there is a lack of evidence for effects independent of adult BMI.