Worldwide deaths and severe envenomation from jellyfish stings

  title={Worldwide deaths and severe envenomation from jellyfish stings},
  author={Peter J. Fenner and John A. Williamson},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
From our database of fatal and serious human envenomations, we report several cases, look at the distribution of these events, and discuss treatment. 

Intravenous ascorbic acid as a treatment for severe jellyfish stings.

A 39 year old male was stung extensively on both lower limbs by an unidentified jellyfish in shallow waters of a beach in the vicinity of Labuan Island, Malaysia.

Marine envenomation: An update — A presentation on the current status of marine envenomation first aid and medical treatments

The current first aid and medical treatments of envenomation discussed include stingray, stonefish, sea snakes and cone shells, as well as treatments for Chironex box jellyfish, Irukandji and other stinging jellyfish.

Envenomation by Cnidarians and Renal Injuries

The current state of knowledge concerning renal injuries resulting from envenomation by coelenterates is summarized and the expected mechanisms, possibilities for therapeutic approaches, and strategies for preventing human diseases in future are described.

A probable case of Irukandji syndrome in Thailand.

A case of probable Irukandji syndrome in Thailand is reported and awareness of the syndrome is promoted to aid sting prevention and stimulate research.

Envenomation with Skin Manifestations and Treatments

This review focuses on Jellyfish toxins, symptoms and treatment after sting in order to reduce treatment time, improve the survival rate for medical providers and to set a reference for follow-up study.

Complication of a Portuguese man-of-war envenomation to the foot: a case report.

  • A. GiordanoL. VitoP. Sardella
  • Medicine
    The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • 2005
A large area of skin necrosis developed after an envenomation that required extensive debridement and skin grafting and the purpose of this case report is to present such a consequence after a jellyfish sting to the dorsum of the foot.

Cutaneous injuries from marine animals.

This is a report of three cases of marine animal injuries by a stingray, a sea anemone and a jellyfish, respectively, illustrating the potential severity of such injuries.

A sting from an unknown jellyfish species associated with persistent symptoms and raised troponin I levels.

This case highlights the envenomation risks associated with marine recreation, and the need for critical evaluation of cardiac troponin assays and for further research in marine toxicology.

Cnidarians and human skin

Treatment of cnidarian injuries and stings is discussed and the varied creatures in this group that can harm man and potentially lead to serious envenomation syndromes are discussed.

A report of 49 cases of cnidarian envenoming from southeastern Brazilian coastal waters.




A fatal jellyfish envenomation by the Portuguese man-o'war.

  • J. BurnettW. Gable
  • Medicine
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1989

Acute management of serious envenomation by box‐jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri)

The early administration of the specific antivenom appears to be the best treatment for the savage pain of the sting, and may also result in a reduction of subsequent skin scarring.

Sudden death in a child following jellyfish envenomation by Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. Case report and autopsy findings.

The case of a child who died within 40 minutes of accidental envenomation with tentacles of a jellyfish, Chiropsalmus quadrumanus, is reported and this coelenterate may be of special danger to small children.

Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals: A Medical and Biological Handbook

Cnidarians - animals with endogenous cnidae echinoderms, molluscs and sponges toxic (venomous and poisonous) marine vertebrates further international studies on toxic marine animals special

Acute regional vascular insufficiency after jellyfish envenomation

Three cases of jellyfish envenomation which occurred in the Indian Ocean and the Andaman Sea are reported, corroborate the vascular and neurogenic injury, which previously have been reported in experimental animals and in human patients, that may result from jellyfish venoms.

Sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) antivenene: neutralizing potency against the venom of three other jellyfish species.

  • E. BaxterG. Marr
  • Environmental Science
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1974

Injuries to Man From Marine Invertebrates in the Australian Region

The greatest part of the book is given to coelenterates and the many types of "jellyfish" stings they may produce, some mild, some excruciatingly painful, and some on occasion lethal.

Comparison of tentacle extracts from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus and Chironex fleckeri.

  • T. E. Keen
  • Biology
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1971

Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri.

Laboratory tests indicate that methylated spirits, widely espoused as a first-aid treatment for jellyfish stings, causes massive discharge of nematocysts in living tentacles of the box-jellyfish, Chir onex fleckeri, casting doubt on this substance as a treatment for Chironex stings.