World War II contrails: a case study of aviation‐induced cloudiness

  title={World War II contrails: a case study of aviation‐induced cloudiness},
  author={Allyn C. Ryan and Angus Robert MacKenzie and Steven W. Watkins and Roger J. Timmis},
  journal={International Journal of Climatology},
Dense and persistent condensation trails or contrails were produced by daytime US Army Air Force (USAAF) bombing raids, flown from England to Europe during World War II (WW2). These raids occurred in years when civilian air travel was rare, giving a predominantly contrail‐free background sky, in a period when there were more meteorological observations taken across England than at any time before or since. The aircraft involved in the raids entered formation at contrail‐forming altitudes… 

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