The purpose of the workshop entitled Taste and Smell in the Elderly: Behavioral and Nutritional Consequences was 1) to review the current state of knowledge in the area of taste and smell, with emphasis on age-related changes, 2) to identify existing gaps in our knowledge, and 3) to develop future research strategies. There was general agreement that the majority of scientific studies have found impairments in taste and smell acuity in the elderly. These losses may result from normal aging, certain disease states especially Alzheimer's disease, medications, surgical interventions, and environmental exposure. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of the basic mechanisms by which aging and environmental factors may impair the chemical senses in the elderly. Further research is also required in a variety of areas including chemosensory test procedures, food intake, and nutrition to understand fully the impact of chemosensory dysfunction on older individuals.