BACKGROUND Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by vascular thrombosis (arterial or venous) and/or pregnancy complications associated with the occurrence of autoantibodies, specifically lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, and/or anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibodies confirmed at least twice over a 12 week period according to the 2006 Sydney criteria. Antiphospholipid antibodies are encountered in the general population with a reported prevalence of 1% to 5% However, APS is far more infrequent with a prevalence of 40-50/100,000 persons and an incidence of about 5 new patients/100,000 persons. APS can be diagnosed in patients with no apparent clinical or laboratory pathology (primary APS) or it may be related to numerous other conditions, autoimmune diseases (usually systemic lupus erythematosus), malignancies, infections and drugs (secondary APS). Women are at risk for APS since the disease is encountered in both the primary and the secondary state in females more often than in men. In addition, women in their reproductive years can develop APS (either classical or obstetric), and special attention is warranted in pregnant women with a diagnosis of APS. The benefits of hormonal therapy in the form of contraception or hormone replacement treatment should be carefully weighed against the increased risk for vascular complications in women with APS.