Women represent more than 75% of the individuals who receive obesity treatment; suprisingly, the numbers of morbidly obese white men and women are approximately equal. Surgical and nonsurgical medical treatments are successful in promoting weight loss; however, maintaining the weight loss is a continuing problem. Weight loss provides many benefits but can lead to undesirable consequences (eg, gallstones and nutrient deficiencies). Long-term success can be accomplished only if the weight loss is permanent; weight cycling increases the health risks associated with obesity. Caution should be exercised in choosing a treatment for obesity so that weight loss is not accomplished at the expense of the health of the individual.