Women in Academic Science

  title={Women in Academic Science},
  author={Stephen J. Ceci and Donna K Ginther and Shulamit Kahn and Wendy M. Williams},
  journal={Psychological Science in the Public Interest},
  pages={141 - 75}
Much has been written in the past two decades about women in academic science careers, but this literature is contradictory. Many analyses have revealed a level playing field, with men and women faring equally, whereas other analyses have suggested numerous areas in which the playing field is not level. The only widely-agreed-upon conclusion is that women are underrepresented in college majors, graduate school programs, and the professoriate in those fields that are the most mathematically… 
Women in Academic Science: Experimental Findings From Hiring Studies
Although women are underrepresented in the most mathematically intensive fields, the gender gap in these fields has narrowed over the past 2 decades. In my E. L. Thorndike address I summarized the
Women are underrepresented in fields where success is believed to require brilliance
Two studies provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation and finding that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others.
Women and Stem
Researchers from economics, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines have studied the persistent under-representation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This
Gender differences in career choices among students in secondary school
ABSTRACT Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics play an important role in shaping the economies of countries. It is now well documented that females are underrepresented in these fields.
Gender Differences in Grant Submissions across Science and Engineering Fields at the NSF
It was found that women are as likely to be funded as men, but the percentage of women submitting proposals was less than expected in every field but engineering, which limits the diversity of basic science research ideas in science and engineering.
Why Are Some STEM Fields More Gender Balanced Than Others?
Efforts to increase women’s participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields.
Making it to the PhD: Gender and student performance in sub-Saharan Africa
Two priority interventions emerge from this study: family-friendly policies and facilities that are supportive of women’s roles as wives and mothers and fostering broader linkages and networks for women in STEM, including ensuring mentoring and supervisory support that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.
Leaving Your Legacy: You Don't Need to Win a Nobel Prize to Inspire the Next Generation
Female scientists and engineers are concentrated in different occupations than men, with relatively high rates of women in the social sciences and in biological, agricultural, and environmental life sciences and relatively low rates in engineering and computer and mathematical sciences.
Gender Productivity Gap Among Star Performers in STEM and Other Scientific Fields
There is a considerable gender productivity gap among stars in favor of men across fields and certain forms of discrimination may disproportionately constrain women’s output increments, and recommendations on interventions aimed at reducing constraints for incremental differentiation among women are offered.
Understanding persistent gender gaps in STEM
It is found that a surprisingly large number of low-achieving men are majoring in PECS, relative to women, and this cannot be explained by an extensive set of student-level factors proposed in the prior literature, and these patterns suggest that interventions to close the gender gap may work to attract high-ach achieving women.


From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers.
Although women have made important inroads in science and engineering since the early 1970s, their progress in these fields has stalled over the past several years. This study looks at women in
Women's Careers in Academic Social Science: Progress, Pitfalls, and Plateaus
Many studies have shown that women are under-represented in tenured ranks in the sciences. Here, we evaluate whether gender differences in the likelihood of obtaining a tenure track job, promotion to
Scientists Want More Children
It is shown that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewerChildren than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely.
The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics
It is concluded that early experience, biological factors, educational policy, and cultural context affect the number of women and men who pursue advanced study in science and math and that these effects add and interact in complex ways.
Elite male faculty in the life sciences employ fewer women
It is shown that high-achieving faculty members who are male train 10–40% fewer women in their laboratories relative to the number of women trained by other investigators, which may be one cause of the leaky pipeline in biomedical research.
Do Faculty Serve as Role Models? The Impact of Instructor Gender on Female Students
Although women have matched or surpassed men in many educational outcomes such as college access and persistence, female students remain much less likely to major in quantitative, technical, and
Why aren't more women in science?: Top researchers debate the evidence.
Why aren't more women pursuing careers in science, engineering, and math? Is the lack of women in these fields a consequence of societal discouragements, innate differences in ability between the
Why Have All the Women Gone? A Study of Exit of Women from the Science and Engineering Professions
Despite recent employment gains of women in many occupations, women continue to be underrepresented in science and engineering jobs in the United States.1 Because the competitiveness of the U.S.
Mind the Gap: Women in STEM Career Breaks
The slow advancement of women in scientific fields remains a persistent problem, especially in academia. Highly trained doctoral women in the sciences drop out of the academic pipeline for a variety
Women in Science: Career Processes and Outcomes
Science is an institutional medium of power, marked by immense inequality in status and rewards. It is a strategic research site for the study of gender in hierarchical contexts, reflecting and